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Panorama econòmic

Economic indicators

For the latest updates on the key economic responses from governments to address the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, please consult the IMF's policy tracking platform Policy Responses to COVID-19.

Germany is the top economic power in Europe and the fourth globally. After experiencing a historic recession following the COVID-19 pandemic, the country’s economy grew throughout the first three quarters of 2022 driven by an ongoing recovery in private consumption. However, Germany only grew an estimated 1.5% in 2022, slower than one year earlier (2.6% - IMF) due to the consequences of the Russia-Ukraine conflict: prior to the invasion, Germany was highly dependent on Russian gas, oil and coal, with around one-third of primary energy supply coming from Russia. The political situation and the resulting EU sanctions against Russia forced Germany to reduce such dependency; however, there were severe disruptions in the supply chain (especially in the chemicals and automotive sectors, which together account for almost 6.5% of GDP) and in energy imports. Sentiment indicators have deteriorated markedly towards the end of 2022; with a decrease in private consumption due to high inflation and rising energy costs. The IMF expects GDP to decrease by 0.3% in 2023 (-0.6% according to the EU Commission), before rebounding by 1.5% in 2024. Downside risks to the forecast remain, especially those related to delays in the energy supplies diversification, which may cause shortages and spur inflation in the winter of 2023-24.

The unprecedented measures taken to fight the pandemic and stabilise the economy – focused on subsidies to companies, prolongation of the short-time work scheme and increased healthcare spending for vaccination and testing - drove an increase in Germany’s budget deficit in recent years. Pandemic-related support programmes were phased out by mid-2022, but three energy support packages estimated at EUR 95 billion in direct expenditures and an energy support fund of 5.5% of GDP financed by credit allowances contributed to the third consecutive year of fiscal deficit (-3% as per the IMF), despite higher tax receipts. While the IMF expects the deficit to decline to 1.8% this year and 1.1% in 2024, the European Commission forecast is less optimistic (3.1% and 2.6%). After peaking at 71.1% in 2022, the government debt-to-GDP ratio is projected to decrease to 68.3% in 2023 and 65.6% the following year (IMF) thanks to the growth of nominal GDP on the back of high inflation, the reduction in the portfolio of bad banks and the decline of cash reserves. Inflation reached a record level of 8.5% in 2022 driven by the aforementioned surge in energy prices, rising input costs and a boost to service sector wages. A tighter labour market and the staggering pass-through of wholesale energy prices should contribute to a gradual decline in inflation, projected at 7.2% this year and 3.5% the next (IMF). For 2023, export growth is expected to recover due to easing supply chain bottlenecks and a record-high order backlog.

Unemployment was estimated at 2.9% in 2022 (IMF), down from 3.6% one year earlier, with wage growth averaging 5% on an annual basis in the first half of the year. The IMF forecasts an increase in unemployment to 3.4% this year and 3.3% in 2024. With a GDP per capita (PPP) of USD 57,927, Germany is among the wealthiest countries in the world (World Bank). Nevertheless, according to data by Destatis, around 20.7% of the country's population is at risk of poverty or social exclusion (latest data available).

GDP Indicators 20222023 (E)2024 (E)2025 (E)2026 (E)
GDP (billions USD) 4,085.684,429.844,700.884,960.295,181.79
GDP (constant prices, annual % change) 1.8-
GDP per capita (USD) 48,75652,82456,03759,13561,807
General government balance (in % of GDP) -2.1-2.4-1.1-0.6-0.6
General government gross debt (in % of GDP) 66.165.964.061.859.9
Inflation rate (%) n/a6.
Unemployment rate (% of the labor force)
Current Account (billions USD) 170.76265.62309.11322.13319.77
Current account (in % of GDP)

Font: IMF – World Economic Outlook Database, 2016

Note: (e) Estimated data

Monetary indicators 20162017201820192020
American Dollar (USD) - Average annual exchange rate for 1 EUR

Font: World Bank, 2015


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Actualitzacions: November 2023

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