Argentina flag Argentina: Visió econòmica i política

El marc polític d'Argentina

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President: Javier Milei (since 10 December 2023); the president is both chief of state and head of government.
Next Election Dates
President: October 2027
Legislative (Senate and Chamber of Deputies): October 2025
Current Political Context
Argentina conducted general elections on October 22, 2023, to elect the president, vice president, members of the National Congress, and governors of most provinces. The incumbent president Alberto Fernández and former president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who was also the incumbent vice president and eligible for re-election to a consecutive term, opted not to seek another term in office. With no presidential candidate securing a majority in the initial round, a runoff occurred on November 19. In the runoff, Javier Milei emerged victorious over Sergio Massa to assume the presidency of Argentina.
New President Javier Milei described himself as an 'anarcho-capitalist' and is expected to pursue libertarian policies. In his first month in office, he unleashed a mega-decree to change or scrap 366 economic rules in a country accustomed to heavy government intervention in the market. Milei has implemented changes to labour laws, extending the trial period for new employees from three to eight months and modifying compensation laws for dismissals without cause in favour of companies. Additionally, he intends to renegotiate labour agreements established since 1975. Furthermore, he has eliminated export restrictions and announced plans to liberalize the internet market. He has also repealed regulations prohibiting the privatization of state-owned enterprises and has expressed interest in privatizing the national airline, Aerolineas Argentinas, and the oil company, YPF. Additionally, he has taken steps to restrict the right to strike, a constitutionally protected right.
According to the International Monetary Fund, Argentina has pledged to build up international reserves and halt central bank financing of government debt as part of the most recent assessment of its USD 44 billion loan program. The global lender has endorsed a series of reforms put forward by President Javier Milei's administration.
Main Political Parties
The main parties/coalitions in Argentina include:

- Freedom Advances (La Libertad Avanza - LLA): far-right political coalition, holding conservative and ultraconservative positions on social and cultural matters, while adopting right-wing libertarian or ultra-liberal stances on economic issues. It is led by Javier Milei, who was elected Presiden in the 2023 Argentine general election
- Union for the Homeland (Unión por la Patria, UP): political and electoral coalition of Peronist political parties, it is the main opposition coalition
- Republican Proposal (Propuesta Republicana - PRO): right-wing, with center-right and far-right factions. Allied of LLA
- Radical Civic Union (Unión Cívica Radical - UCR): centrist, liberal
- Hacemos Coalición Federal (HCF): political/parliamentary alliance that unified the blocs Hacemos por Nuestro País, Coalición Cívica ARI, and Cambio Federal in the Chamber of Deputies
- Federal Peronism (Peronismo Federal): moderate, centrist, or right-wing Peronism, primarily recognized for its opposition to Kirchnerism, the left-wing faction of Peronism.

Executive Power
Executive power is held by the President of the Argentine nation and is his/her responsibility to respond to national interests. The President is the Head of the Government and the Chief of State, the individual responsible for the general administration of the country and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The President is elected by universal suffrage for a four-year term and can be re-elected for a subsequent consecutive term of office. The Vice President is elected alongside the President. The President appoints individuals to the Council of Ministers.
Argentina has 23 provinces and one autonomous federal district - each retains some powers that do not belong to the federal government and elects its own legislators and provincial governors.
Legislative Power
The legislative power is held by the bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional). The Chamber of Deputies (the lower house) is comprised of 257 members, which are elected to four-year terms by direct universal suffrage, with half of the membership renewed every two years. The Senate (upper house) is comprised of 72 members, which are elected to six-year terms by direct universal suffrage - with one third of the members elected every two years.
 

Indicator of Freedom of the Press

Definition:

The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:
69/180
 

Indicator of Political Freedom

Definition:

The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Ranking:
Free
Political Freedom:
2/7

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House

 

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Actualitzacions: June 2024

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