Bahrain flag Bahrain: Visió econòmica i política

Xifres de comerç exterior de Bahrain

Foreign Trade in Figures

Bahrain's market constitutes one of the most diversified economies in the region. The country is very open to foreign trade, which accounts for around 160% of the GDP (World Bank, latest data available). Bahrain has a strong steel and aluminum industry: unwrought aluminum alloys emerged as the leading exports in 2023, totaling BHD 1.059 billion (27%), trailed by agglomerated iron ores and concentrates alloyed at BHD 689 million (18%), and non-alloyed aluminum wire ranking third with BHD 223 million (6%). As per imports, non-agglomerated iron ores and concentrates alloyed emerged as the top product imported to Bahrain, with a total value of BHD 602 million (10%). Following closely, other aluminum oxide ranked second at BHD 448 million (8%), while gold ingots secured the third position with BHD 221 million (4% - data Information & eGovernment Authority).

Overall, the country has a structural trade surplus. In 2023, China held the top position for imports to Bahrain, totaling BHD 808 million (14%), followed by the United Arab Emirates in second place with BHD 547 million (9.5%), and Brazil ranking third with BHD 523 million (9%). On the other hand, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia secured the top rank among countries for the exports of products with national origin, totaling BHD 937 million (24%). Following closely, the United Arab Emirates ranked second with BHD 444 million (11%), while the United States of America held the third position with BHD 371 million (9% - data Information & eGovernment Authority).
As per governmental data, the value of imports has decreased by 1%, reaching BHD 5.778 billion during 2023, compared to BHD 5.842 billion in 2022. Conversely, the value of exports of products with national origin marked a decrease by 21% to BHD 3.909 billion during 2023, compared to BHD 4.967 billion in 2022. As per services, the latest data available from WTO show that exports stood at USD 11.5 billion in 2022, against USD 8.5 billion in imports.

 
Foreign Trade Values 20192020202120222023
Imports of Goods (million USD) 13,25612,68314,18815,53715,367
Exports of Goods (million USD) 18,12014,06622,36930,19425,235
Imports of Services (million USD) 8,0839,26310,2898,582n/a
Exports of Services (million USD) 11,76511,49713,22511,571n/a

Source: World Trade Organisation (WTO) ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Indicators 20172018201920202021
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 143.1150.8141.7140.2159.8
Trade Balance (million USD) -700-1,066n/an/an/a
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) 2,8562,910n/an/an/a
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 7.65.7-5.6-0.715.2
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 3.73.30.4-2.529.5
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 67.371.665.267.370.2
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 75.879.376.572.989.6

Source: World Bank ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Forecasts 20232024 (e)2025 (e)2026 (e)2027 (e)
Volume of exports of goods and services (Annual % change) 2.84.92.81.01.1
Volume of imports of goods and services (Annual % change) 1.13.62.51.11.1

Source: IMF, World Economic Outlook ; Latest available data

Note: (e) Estimated Data

 
International Economic Cooperation
Member of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)

Member of Arab League.

The country is also part of the Greater Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA), a pact of the Arab League entered into force in January 2005 which aims to form an Arabic free trade area.

 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2022
Saudi Arabia 13.7%
United States 8.6%
United Arab Emirates 7.4%
Netherlands 3.5%
Oman 2.9%
See More Countries 63.9%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2022
China 14.5%
Brazil 10.6%
Australia 8.7%
United Arab Emirates 8.3%
United States 6.5%
See More Countries 51.5%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

Main Products

22.3 bn USD of products exported in 2022
Unwrought aluminiumUnwrought aluminium 23.9%
Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron...Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron pyrites 9.7%
Aluminium wire (excl. stranded wire, cables,...Aluminium wire (excl. stranded wire, cables, plaited bands and the like and other articles of heading 7614, electrically insulated wires, and strings for musical instruments) 3.2%
Plates, sheets and strip, of aluminium, of a...Plates, sheets and strip, of aluminium, of a thickness of > 0,2 mm (excl. expanded plates, sheets and strip) 2.2%
Mineral or chemical nitrogenous fertilisers (excl....Mineral or chemical nitrogenous fertilisers (excl. those in pellet or similar forms, or in packages with a gross weight of <= 10 kg) 1.9%
See More Products 59.2%
15.5 bn USD of products imported in 2022
Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron...Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron pyrites 12.0%
Artificial corundum, whether or not chemically...Artificial corundum, whether or not chemically defined; aluminium oxide; aluminium hydroxide 8.0%
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 4.8%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with internal combustion piston engine of heading 8407 or 8408 3.1%
Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought...Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought or not further worked than semi-manufactured or in powder form 2.6%
See More Products 69.6%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

To go further, check out our service Import-Export Flows.

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Actualitzacions: April 2024

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