Bielorússia flag Bielorússia: Visió econòmica i política

Xifres de comerç exterior de Bielorússia

Foreign Trade in Figures

The Belarusian economy is both largely state-owned (more than 70% of GDP is generated by public or parastatal enterprises) and very open to international trade, which accounts for 139% of GDP (World Bank, latest data available). The main products exported by Belarus are oil and petroleum products, fertilizers, trucks and tractors and spare parts to them, milk and cheese, meat products, furniture and timber, and tires. Overall, more than 60% of manufactured goods are exported to foreign markets. The country’s imports are led by petroleum oils, petroleum gas, motorized vehicles for the transport of passengers, and medicaments (data by Comtrade).

Belarus’ main trading partners in 2021 were the Russian Federation (35%), Poland (4%), Ukraine (3%), Lithuania (3%), and Germany (2%); whereas imports arrived chiefly from Russia (28.6%), China (8.1%) Germany (3.6%), Ukraine (3.4%), and Poland (2.5%). As a legacy of the Soviet era, during which Belarus was the workshop of the USSR, the Russian and Belarusian production structures remained very complementary. As a result, the Belarusian economy is still strongly concentrated on the Russian market, both as a natural outlet and as its main supplier. In 2022, Belarus saw a trade surplus with Russia for the first time. Recently, trade ties with China have strengthened, as Beijing is looking for partners for its New Silk Road project; whereas the European Union, Belarus' second-largest trading partner, announced that it would not ratify the bilateral partnership and cooperation agreement with the country due to “Belarus' lack of commitment to democracy and political and civil rights”.

The country’s balance of trade has been fluctuating in recent years. In 2021, Belarus exported USD 39.7 billion worth of goods (+36.9% y-o-y) and USD 10.2 billion of commercial services (+16.6%), importing USD 41.3 billion (+26.9% y-o-y) and USD 5.6 billion (+15.1%), respectively (data by WTO). According to figures from the World Bank, Belarus registered a trade surplus of 5.5% of GDP in 2021 (from 3.1% one year earlier). Preliminary figures from Belstat show that in 2022 the turnover of foreign trade in goods totalled USD 76.9 billion (-6% y-o-y), of which exports accounted for USD 38.3 billion (-4.3%) and imports for USD 38.6 billion (-7.7%).

 
Foreign Trade Values 20172018201920202021
Imports of Goods (million USD) 34,23538,44039,48032,60141,387
Exports of Goods (million USD) 29,24033,90732,96029,03439,762
Imports of Services (million USD) 4,7725,3995,8424,9275,672
Exports of Services (million USD) 7,8188,8179,6248,77510,234

Source: World Trade Organisation (WTO) ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Indicators 20172018201920202021
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 133.4139.4130.9118.9138.7
Trade Balance (million USD) -2,979-2,503-4,193-1,993-667
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) 100929-4031,9483,966
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 11.125.3-3.3-12.517.7
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 7.512.9-6.3-6.920.9
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 66.668.965.857.966.6
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 66.870.565.161.072.1

Source: World Bank ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Forecasts 20222023 (e)2024 (e)2025 (e)2026 (e)
Volume of exports of goods and services (Annual % change) -13.13.13.01.81.4
Volume of imports of goods and services (Annual % change) -12.83.42.71.82.1

Source: IMF, World Economic Outlook ; Latest available data

Note: (e) Estimated Data

 
International Economic Cooperation
Belarus is member of:
- The Eurasian Economic Union
- The Eurasian Economic Community
- The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 
Belarus also signed in 2009 a Free Trade Agreement with Serbia.
 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2021
Russia 35.0%
Poland 4.0%
Ukraine 3.0%
Lithuania 3.0%
Germany 2.0%
See More Countries 53.0%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2021
Russia 28.6%
China 8.1%
Germany 3.6%
Ukraine 3.4%
Poland 2.5%
See More Countries 53.7%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

Main Products

39.9 bn USD of products exported in 2021
Cheese and curdCheese and curd 3.0%
Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or peeled,...Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or peeled, whether or not planed, sanded or end-jointed, of a thickness of > 6 mm 2.0%
Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats...Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats and medical, surgical, dental or veterinary furniture) 1.6%
Bars and rods, of iron or non-alloy steel, not...Bars and rods, of iron or non-alloy steel, not further worked than forged, hot-rolled, hot-drawn or hot-extruded, but incl. those twisted after rolling (excl. in irregularly wound coils) 1.4%
Milk and cream, concentrated or containing added...Milk and cream, concentrated or containing added sugar or other sweetening matter 1.4%
See More Products 90.7%
41.8 bn USD of products imported in 2021
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 2.9%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses "incl. those in the form of transdermal administration" or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 1.4%
Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles...Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705, n.e.s. 1.2%
Telephone sets, incl. telephones for cellular...Telephone sets, incl. telephones for cellular networks or for other wireless networks; other apparatus for the transmission or reception of voice, images or other data, incl. apparatus for communication in a wired or wireless network [such as a local or wide area network]; parts thereof (excl. than transmission or reception apparatus of heading 8443, 8525, 8527 or 8528) 1.1%
Ferrous waste and scrap; remelting scrap ingots of...Ferrous waste and scrap; remelting scrap ingots of iron or steel (excl. slag, scale and other waste from the production of iron or steel; radioactive waste and scrap; fragments of pigs, blocks or other primary forms of pig iron or spiegeleisen) 1.1%
See More Products 92.3%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

To go further, check out our service Import Export Flows.

Return to top

Vols fer algun comentari sobre aquest contingut? Escriu-nos.

 

© eexpand, Tots els drets reservats.
Actualitzacions: November 2023

Return to top