Bòsnia i Hercegovina flag Bòsnia i Hercegovina: Panorama econòmic

Panorama econòmic

Economic indicators

For the latest updates on the key economic responses from governments to address the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, please consult the IMF's policy tracking platform Policy Responses to COVID-19.

Nowadays, Bosnia and Herzegovina is considered an upper-middle-income country, achieving great results since 1995, the year in which the inter-ethnic conflict that destroyed much of the Bosnian economy and infrastructure, increased unemployment and decreased production, came to an end. After contracting during the COVID-19 pandemic, the economy resumed its growth path and expanded by 7.5% in 2021. Growth continued in the first (5.8%) and the second (5.9%) quarters of 2022 led by consumption and investments, but the external shocks caused by the Russian invasion of Ukraine caused a slowdown in both domestic and foreign demand, resulting in an overall growth rate of 2.5% for the year. As domestic and external risks persist, the IMF forecasts a growth rate of around 2% this year and 3% in 2024.

The general government balance was negative by 0.2% of GDP in 2022; however, the public accounts of the country's three constituent entities (Central State, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska) are expected to improve in 2023, when the government budget should return into positive territory (1.2% of GDP). Similarly, the debt-to-GDP ratio returned around its pre-pandemic level (31.8% in 2022) and should follow a downward trend over the forecast horizon 2(9.3% and 27.9% this year and the next, respectively – IMF). The government does not have access to markets, but it receives financing from several multilateral institutions, including the EBRD and the EU Commission. Inflation reached double-digit rates in 2022 (10.5%) mostly due to the marked rise in energy prices, but showed signs of deceleration towards the end of the year. According to IMF’s estimates, it should gradually ease in 2023 (4.5%) and 2024 (3.5%).

Corruption and the high level of unemployment are major hurdles to the country's economic development. The unemployment rate stood at 17.3% in 2022 and is expected to remain stable over the forecast horizon. Addressing bottlenecks causing persistent long-term unemployment, such as enhancing formal labour market participation (especially for women) and reducing skills mismatches for youth will be key. The country’s GDP per capita (PPP) is low, estimated at USD 17,899 in 2022 by the IMF.

GDP Indicators 20222023 (E)2024 (E)2025 (E)2026 (E)
GDP (billions USD) 24.5226.9528.7430.5732.43
GDP (constant prices, annual % change)
GDP per capita (USD) 7,0607,7788,3178,8749,438
General government balance (in % of GDP) 0.4-1.3-1.5-1.1-0.8
General government gross debt (in % of GDP) 29.728.628.228.128.5
Inflation rate (%) n/a5.
Unemployment rate (% of the labor force) 15.415.315.315.215.2
Current Account (billions USD) -1.10-1.16-1.09-1.12-1.22
Current account (in % of GDP) -4.5-4.3-3.8-3.7-3.7

Font: IMF – World Economic Outlook Database, 2016

Note: (e) Estimated data

Monetary indicators 20162017201820192020
Bosnian Mark (BAM) - Average annual exchange rate for 1 EUR 1.881.961.961.911.96

Font: World Bank, 2015


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Actualitzacions: November 2023

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