Brasil flag Brasil: Visió econòmica i política

El marc polític de Brasil

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President: Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva (since 1 January 2023) - the president is both Chief of State and Head of Government
Next Election Dates
Presidential: October 2026
Federal Senate (for one-third of Senate seats) and Chamber of Deputies: October 2026
Current Political Context
In October 2022, Brazilian voters went to the polls to choose between two polarising candidates in the country's presidential elections. The president at the time, Jair Bolsonaro, was running for reelection against former president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, one of the most popular leaders in Brazilian history. The far-right candidate, Jair Bolsonaro, had been facing a significant decrease in popularity and shrinking approval ratings, mainly due to his government's management of the pandemic and controversial decisions made throughout his mandate, such as cutting funding for federal education and relaxing gun ownership laws. His opponent in the polls, Lula, had served two terms as president between 2003 and 2010 and was later imprisoned on corruption charges, although his conviction was subsequently annulled. Finally, Lula retook office in January 2023, narrowly defeating Bolsonaro in the presidential runoff. Shortly after Lula’s inauguration on January 8, supporters of Bolsonaro invaded and damaged the presidential palace, Congress, and Supreme Court in Brasília, demanding intervention by the Armed Forces. The prompt and unified response from the executive, judicial, and legislative branches contained the movement without major disruption. Though the political climate remains somewhat polarized, tensions have considerably eased since January.
Lula advocates for increased state involvement in the economy, which includes boosting the role of state banks, pausing new privatizations while emphasizing public-private partnerships instead, and reversing Petrobras' divestment strategy to focus on increasing domestic energy self-sufficiency. Tax reform also ranks high on the agenda, especially the unification of the five consumption taxes currently in force.
Main Political Parties
About two dozen political parties are represented in the Brazilian National Congress. Parties typically group to form coalition governments. However, politicians often change parties, which has led to weak party discipline.

The main parties by number of seats in Congress are:

- Social Liberal Party (PSL): far-right, conservative, nationalist, militarist, liberal, anti-communism, anti-feminism, anti-LGBTQI+, populist.
- The Worker's Party (PT): centre-left, social democratic. Party with the highest number of elected representatives throughout the country since 2003.
- The Liberal Party (PL): formerly known as the Party of the Republic (PR). Centre-right to right, liberal, conservative, Christian democracy.
- The Progressive Party (PP): right-wing, nationalist, conservative.
- Social Democratic Party (PSD): big-tent party, centrist, liberal, Christian democracy.
- The Democratic Movement Party (MDB): big-tent party, centrist, liberal, conservative.
- The Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB): centre, social-democratic, liberal, conservative.
- The Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB): centre-left to left-wing, social-democratic, economic nationalism, state interventionism.
- Republicans: right-wing, conservative, Christian democracy.
- Democratic Labour Party (PDT): centre-left, social-democratic, labourism.
- Solidarity (SDD): left-wing, social-democratic, labourism.
- Podemos (PODE): centre-right to right, nationalist, populist.
- Socialism and Liberty Party (PSOL): left-wing to far-left, social-democratic, anti-capitalist, environmentalist.
- Forward (Avante): centre, Third Way, populism.
- New Party (NOVO): centre-right to right-wing, liberalism.
- Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB): left-wing, Communism, Marxism–Leninism.
- Citizenship (PSDB-Cidadania): centre to centre-left, social liberalism, Third Way.
- Patriot (Patriota): right-wing to far-right, social conservatism, economic liberalism, militarism.
- Green Party (PV): centre to centre-left, social-democratic, environmentalist, green politics.
- Sustainability Network (REDE): centre to centre-left, green politics, progressivism, environmentalism.
- The Brazil Union (União Brasil): liberal-conservative, formed through the merger of the Democrats (DEM) and the Social Liberal Party (PSL).
- The Democratic Renewal Party (PRD): a fusion of Patriota and the Brazilian Labour Party (PTB)

In the latest election, the Brazil of Hope Federation (FE Brasil), an electoral and parliamentary group formed by the Workers' Party (PT), Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB) and Green Party (PV), obtained the majority of the seats.

Executive Power
The President is both Head of State and Government. He or she holds executive power and appoints the Council of Ministers. The President and Vice-president are elected by universal suffrage for a four year term, with the possibility of re-election for a second successive term.
Legislative Power
The legislative power is bicameral. The National Congress is made up of two houses: the Senate (upper house) and the Chamber of Deputies (lower house). The Senate is comprised of 81 members (three members for each of the 26 states and the Federal District of Brasília), each elected on a majority basis for eight-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternatively every four years. The Chamber of Deputies is comprised of 513 members, with seats allocated according to proportional representation, elected every four years for a four-year term. There are also legislatures and administrations at the state level in each of Brazil’s 26 states and in the Federal District.
 

Indicator of Freedom of the Press

Definition:

The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:
111/180
 

Indicator of Political Freedom

Definition:

The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Ranking:
Free
Political Freedom:
2/7

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House

 

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Actualitzacions: February 2024

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