Brasil flag Brasil: Visió econòmica i política

El marc polític de Brasil

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President: Jair BOLSONARO (since 1 January 2019) - the president is both Chief of State and Head of Government
Vice President: Antônio Hamilton Martins MOURÃO (since January 1, 2019)
Next Election Dates
Presidential: October 2022
Federal Senate (for one-third of Senate seats) and Chamber of Deputies: October 2022
Current Political Context
The far-right president, Jair Bolsonaro, took office in January 2019 and since his inauguration he has been dealing with a polarised country where the impact of the deep 2015/16 recession is still visible. Even though Bolsonaro's policies continue to antagonise the Brazilian society, the economic response at the beginning of his mandate was positive, mainly thanks to the new Minister of the Economy, Paulo Guedes. The liberal Minister defends the formal independence of the Central Bank, the privatisation of state-owned companies, and a capitalisation system for social security. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the government announced relief measures to aid informal and self-employed workers - at a fiscal cost of 4.8% of GDP - which managed to somewhat increase the president Bolsonaro approval rating. However, in 2021, a Senate committee evaluating the government's handling of the COVID-19 crisis gained momentum and the president's popularity among Brazilians significantly decreased, which could impact Bolsonaro's performance in the coming presidential elections. Also in 2021, the government obtained congressional approval for the official autonomy of the Central Bank and the bill that allows the privatisation of Electrobras, a state-owned electricity company. The Congress is also discussing an administrative reform aimed at changing the rules for new civil servants, limiting job stability for some careers; and a tax reform which would reduce corporate tax rates and create a dividend tax.
Main Political Parties
About two dozen political parties are represented in the Brazilian National Congress. Parties typically group together to form coalition governments. However, politicians often change parties, which has led to weak party discipline.

The main parties by number of seats in Congress are:

- Social Liberal Party (PSL): far-right, conservative, nationalist, militarist, liberal, anti-communism, anti-feminism, anti-LGBTQI+, populist. In 2018, after the presidential election of Bolsonaro, PSL became the second most powerful party in Brazil, with 56 elected officials both to the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. However, Bolsonaro left the party in 2019, causing PSL to lose some support, particularly among the president's most avid supporters.
- The Worker's Party (PT): centre-left, social democratic. Party with the highest number of elected representatives throughout the country since 2003. Retains majority in both chambers of Congress.
- The Liberal Party (PL): formely known as the Party of the Republic (PR). Centre-right to right, liberal, conservative, Christian democracy.
- The Progressive Party (PP): right-wing, nationalist, conservative.
- Social Democratic Party (PSD): big-tent party, centrist, liberal, Christian democracy.
- The Democratic Movement Party (MDB): big-tent party, centrist, liberal, conservative.
- The Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB): centre, social-democratic, liberal, conservative.
- The Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB): centre-left to left-wing, social-democratic, economic nationalism, state interventionism.
- Republicans: right-wing, conservative, Christian democracy.
- The Democrats (DEM): centre-right to right-wing, conservative, liberal, Christian democracy.
- Democratic Labour Party (PDT): centre-left, social-democratic, labourism.
- Solidarity (SDD): left-wing, social-democratic, labourism.
- Social Christian Party (PSC): right-wing to far-right, conservative, Christian democracy.
- Podemos (PODE): centre-right to right, nationalist, populist.
- Republican Party of the Social Order (PROS): centre-left, liberal, social-democratic, Christian democracy.
- Brazilian Labour Party (PTB): right-wing to far-right, social conservatism, Brazilian nationalism, right-wing populism.
- Socialism and Liberty Party (PSOL): left-wing to far-left, social-democratic, anti-capitalist, environmentalist.
- Forward (Avante): centre, Third Way, populism.
- New Party (NOVO): centre-right to right-wing, liberalism.
- Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB): left-wing, Communism, Marxism–Leninism.
- Citizenship (Cidadania): centre to centre-left, social liberalism, Third Way.
- Patriot (Patriota): right-wing to far-right, social conservatism, economic liberalism, militarism.
- Green Party (PV): centre to centre-left, social-democratic, environmentalist, green politics.
- Sustainability Network (REDE): centre to centre-left, green politics, progressivism, environmentalism.

Executive Power
The President is both Head of State and Government. He or she holds executive power and appoints the Council of Ministers. The President and Vice-president are elected by universal suffrage for a four year term, with the possibility of re-election for a second successive term.
Legislative Power
The legislative power is bicameral. The National Congress is made up of two houses: the Senate (upper house) and the Chamber of Deputies (lower house). The Senate is comprised of 81 members (three members for each of the 26 states and the Federal District of Brasília), each elected on a majority basis for eight-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternatively every four years. The Chamber of Deputies is comprised of 513 members, with seats allocated according to proportional representation, elected every four years for a four-year term. There are also legislatures and administrations at the state level in each of Brazil’s 26 states and in the Federal District.
 

Indicator of Freedom of the Press

Definition:

The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:
111/180
 

Indicator of Political Freedom

Definition:

The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Ranking:
Free
Political Freedom:
2/7

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House

 

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Actualitzacions: October 2022

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