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El marc polític de Corea del Sud

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President: Yoon Suk-youl (since 10 May 2022)
Prime Minister: President Yoon has nominated Han Duck-soo to the role of prime minister
Next Election Dates
Legislative: April 10, 2024
Presidential: 2027
Current Political Context
The Korean-peninsula remains one of the most protracted and volatile conflict zones in the word. Ex-President Moon Jae-in has pushed the denuclearization and the 'peace economy' concept as the cornerstones of its North Korea policy. In its five-year plan, the government was working to lay the foundations for economic unification by restarting inter-Korean cooperation and seeking a single market for Seoul and Pyongyang. The purpose is to achieve peace and unification by 2045. Under the previous administration, Seoul has undertaken its first unified diplomatic initiative aimed at advancing ties with India and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). This policy is an extension of South Korea’s need to diversify its economic and strategic relationships amid the uncertainty posed by competition between its closest ally, the United States, and largest trading partner, China. By elevating ties with India and Southeast Asia, particularly in the economic realm, Seoul hopes to insulate itself from the risks posed by trade and strategic friction between the two great powers.

Under the newly elected President Yoon Suk-yeol, South Korea is adapting to a rapidly changing geopolitical environment by seeking to elevate its international profile and improve relations with key allies. But sustaining this important strategic shift will require its deeper institutionalization, both at home and in the US and Japan. More broadly, South Korea also will need to strengthen its participation in multilateral institutions and networks, so that it can work with other countries to provide international public goods, mitigate supply-chain problems, and address other global issues.

Yoon Suk-yeol, will face a period of policy gridlock in 2023 as a result of his narrow electoral support base, the ongoing power struggles within the ruling People Power Party, the opposition Minjoo Party's control of parliament and growing public discontent with the rising cost of living and divisive labour and gender policies. South Korea’s parliament approved a 2023 budget that reflects a more rigorous fiscal approach from the new government as it tries to position the nation to address rising economic risks. It represents efforts by officials under new President Yoon Suk Yeol to reduce South Korea’s debt dependence and wean the economy off pandemic-era stimulus. A relaxation of Covid restrictions has allowed businesses to bounce back with less government support. That’s giving policy makers a chance to pivot to issues ranging from an ageing population to slowing economic growth and mounting geopolitical uncertainty.

Inter-Korean tensions will intensify as South Korea deepens defence co-operation with the US while North Korea seeks to further its development of nuclear weapons. South Korea will refrain from siding with the US in its rivalry with China, to protect its own economic interests.

One problem for President Yoon Suk-yeol, whose margin of victory over his more left-wing opponent was just 0.74% in 2022, is the level of domestic political support for a major foreign-policy shift. Given South Korea’s winner-takes-all political system, in which presidents are limited to a single five-year term, many worry that any major foreign-policy changes could be summarily reversed as soon as 2027. With the next presidential election not due until then, Yoon has time to secure such a consensus if he works hard at it.

Main Political Parties
The re-branding of party names and party mergers have been a popular means of securing additional votes in recent years. The most influential parties are:

- The Democratic (Minjo) Party : progressive

- People Power Party or PPP (formerly Liberty Korea Party): right-wing

- Justice Party: centre-left; organised around progressivism

Executive Power
The President is the chief of the state, head of the Government and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. He or she is elected by a popular vote for a single five-year term. The President enjoys executive powers and appoints both the Prime Minister and the State Council (cabinet) with consent of the parliament. The Prime Minister is not required to be a member of parliament and his or her main role is to assist the President.
Legislative Power
The legislature in South Korea is unicameral. The Parliament, called the National Assembly, has 300 seats distributed among parties in proportion to their share of the vote. Each member is elected to serve four-year terms. The executive branch of the government is directly or indirectly dependent on the support of the National Assembly, often expressed through a vote of confidence.

Indicator of Freedom of the Press


The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:

Indicator of Political Freedom


The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Political Freedom:

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House


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Actualitzacions: November 2023

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