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El marc polític de Corea del Sud

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President: Moon Jae-in (since 10 May 2017)
Prime Minister: Chung Sye-kyun (since 14 January 2020)
Next Election Dates
Legislative: April 2024
Presidential: 2022
Current Political Context
The Korean-peninsula remains one of the most protracted and volatile conflict zones in the word. President Moon Jae-in has pushed the denuclearization and the 'peace economy' concept as the cornerstones of its North Korea policy. In its five-year plan, the government is working to lay the foundations for economic unification by restarting inter-Korean cooperation and seeking a single market for Seoul and Pyongyang. The purpose is to achieve peace and unification by 2045.

President Moon Jae-in party has won a decisive victory in parliamentary elections in January 2020, with voters backing the government's response to the coronavirus pandemic. The ruling left-wing party is likely to press its reform agenda ahead of the next presidential election, notably on unemployment and chaebol reform.

Under South Korean President Moon Jae-in and his administration, Seoul has undertaken its first unified diplomatic initiative aimed at advancing ties with India and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). This policy is an extension of South Korea’s need to diversify its economic and strategic relationships amid the uncertainty posed by competition between its closest ally, the United States, and largest trading partner, China. By elevating ties with India and Southeast Asia, particularly in the economic realm, Seoul hopes to insulate itself from the risks posed by trade and strategic friction between the two great powers.

Main Political Parties
The re-branding of party names and party mergers have been a popular means of securing additional votes in recent years. The most influential parties are:

- The Liberty Korea Party (LKP): right-wing, second party in the Parliament since August 2017. The LKP merged with "Onward for Future 4.0" and the New Conservative Party (right-wing; founded in December 2019) on 17 February 2020.

Smaller parties include:
- Bareunmirae Party (BP): centre-right
- Justice Party
: centre-left; organised around progressivism

Executive Power
The President is the chief of the state, head of the Government and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. He or she is elected by a popular vote for a single five-year term. The President enjoys executive powers and appoints both the Prime Minister and the State Council (cabinet) with consent of the parliament. The Prime Minister is not required to be a member of parliament and his or her main role is to assist the President.
Legislative Power
The legislature in South Korea is unicameral. The Parliament, called the National Assembly, has 300 seats distributed among parties in proportion to their share of the vote. Each member is elected to serve four-year terms. The executive branch of the government is directly or indirectly dependent on the support of the National Assembly, often expressed through a vote of confidence.
 

Indicator of Freedom of the Press

Definition:

The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:
42/180

Source: World Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders

 

Indicator of Political Freedom

Definition:

The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Ranking:
Free
Political Freedom:
2/7

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House

 

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Actualitzacions: May 2022

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