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El marc polític d'Egipte

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President: Abdel fattah El-Sisi (since June 2014 ; re-elected for a second term in March 2018)
Prime Minister: Mostafa Madbouli (since June 2018)
Next Election Dates
Presidential: 2024
Parliamentary: 2025
Current Political Context
Egypt’s presidential elections of March 2018 posed little challenge to incumbent Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi being re-elected with 97% of votes. In 2019, a constitutional referendum allowed President Abdel Fattah el-Sissi to remain in power until 2030 (instead of 2022 as per the previous regulations), as well as re-introducing an upper chamber – the Senate - in the Parliament, after its abolition in the 2014 Constitution. Moreover, the amendments strengthened the powers of the president over the judiciary, giving him the power to appoint the head of the Supreme Constitutional Court and making him the head of the Higher Council for Judicial Authorities, which appoints the public prosecutor and judicial leaders. The 2020 elections strengthened parliament's pro-presidential group and weakened opposition voices. Egypt plays a pivotal role in regional stability and the fight against terrorism, but tensions remain with Ethiopia regarding the construction of the Grand Renaissance Dam upstream of the Nile, on which about 90% of the country’s drinking water supply depends. Relations with Turkey have also been strained over Libya and gas development in the eastern Mediterranean (Coface).
Main Political Parties
In Egypt, there are 8 different active political alliances based on their religious and political orientation.

Civil Democratic Movement:

Reform and Development Party [Mohamad Anwar al-SADAT], Socialist Popular Alliance Party, Constitution Party, Justice Party, Egyptian Social Democratic Party [Farid ZAHRAN] , Dignity Party , Freedom Egypt Party , Bread and Freedom Party


Arab Democratic Nasserist Party [Dr. Mohamed ABDUL ELLA], Arab Party for Justice and Equality, Democratic Generation Party, Democratic Peace Party [Ahmed FADALY], Egyptian Arab Socialist Party, Egyptian National Movement Party [Gen. Raouf EL SAYED] , My Homeland Egypt Party [Gen. Seif El Islam ABDEL BARY] ,Social Construction Party , Tomorrow Party , Victory Party, Voice of Egypt Party

National Front Alliance:

Egyptian Democratic, Nasserist Party, Future of Egypt Party, Dignity Party, Tagammu Party

For the Love of Egypt (Fee Hob Misr):

Free Egyptians Party [Essam KHALIL]: centre/centre-right , Wafd Party [Bahaa ABU SHOKA]: national-liberal ,Nation's Future Party (Mostaqbal Watan) [Mohamed Ashraf RASHAD]: centre-left , Congress Party [Omar Al-Mokhtar SEMIDA]: centre-right, big tent, liberalism, Conservative Party [Akmal KOURTAM] , Tamarrod , Tommorow Party, Sadat Democratic Party, Modern Egypt Party [Nabil DEIBIS] , Reform and Renaissance Party

Call of Egypt:

Human Rights and Citizenship Party, We Are The People Party, New Independent Party, Arab Party for Justice and Equality, Homeland Defenders Party

Independent Current Coalition:

Democratic Peace Party, Egyptian Arab Socialist Party

Egyptian Front:

Modern Egypt Party, Republican People’s Party [Hazim AMR] : liberal and populist , National Party of Egypt, Egyptian Liberation Party, Tomorrow Party, Egyptian National Movement Party [Gen. Raouf EL SAYED], My Homeland Egypt Party, Democratic Generation Party

Anti-Coup Alliance:

Building and Development Party , Freedom and Justice Party , New Labour Party , Virtue Party, Egyptian Reform Party , Authencity Party , People Party

Also, there are other parties:

Al-Nour [Yunis MAKHYUN]: far-right, conservative-salafist
El Ghad Party [Moussa Mostafa MOUSSA]
El Serh El Masry el Hor [Tarek Ahmed Abbas NADIM]
Freedom Party [Salah HASSABALAH]
Homeland’s Protector Party [Lt. Gen. (retired) Galal AL-HARIDI]: populist
National Progressive Unionist (Tagammu) Party [Sayed Abdel AAL]
Revolutionary Guards Party [Magdy EL-SHARIF]

Executive Power
The President is the Head of State and the Supreme Commander of the armed forces. He is elected for a six-year term of office. The President is the head of the executive branch and appoints the Prime Minister, who must be approved by a confidence vote in the Parliament. The President also appoints the head of the Council of Ministers. He can dissolve the Assembly and rule by decree.
In February 2019 the Parliament voted to remove the limit of two terms for the President, whose term has been extended from four to six years.
Legislative Power
The legislative power is bicameral since the constitutional referendum of 2019 was approved by the House of Representatives in June 2020. It established an upper chamber called the Senate, composed of 300 seats. The House of Representatives is composed of 596 members elected for a period of 5 years by universal suffrage. The President may dissolve the House of Representatives.

Indicator of Freedom of the Press


The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:

Source: World Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders


Indicator of Political Freedom


The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Not Free
Political Freedom:

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House


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