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El marc polític d'Egipte

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President: Abdel fattah El-Sisi (since June 2014 ; re-elected for a second term in March 2018)
Prime Minister: Mostafa Madbouli (since June 2018)
Next Election Dates
Presidential: 2024
Parliamentary: 2025
Current Political Context
Egypt’s presidential elections of March 2018 posed little challenge to incumbent Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi being re-elected with 97% of votes. In 2019, a constitutional referendum allowed President Abdel Fattah el-Sissi to remain in power until 2030 (instead of 2022 as per the previous regulations), as well as re-introducing an upper chamber – the Senate - in the Parliament, after its abolition in the 2014 Constitution. Moreover, the amendments strengthened the powers of the president over the judiciary, giving him the power to appoint the head of the Supreme Constitutional Court and making him the head of the Higher Council for Judicial Authorities, which appoints the public prosecutor and judicial leaders. The 2020 elections strengthened parliament's pro-presidential group and weakened opposition voices. Egypt plays a pivotal role in regional stability and the fight against terrorism, but tensions remain with Ethiopia regarding the construction of the Grand Renaissance Dam upstream of the Nile, on which about 90% of the country’s drinking water supply depends. Relations with Turkey have also been strained over Libya and gas development in the eastern Mediterranean (Coface).
Main Political Parties
Out of more than 100 parties, only about 20 are under the dome of Parliament, 5 have parliamentary bodies with more than 10 deputies within the House. These parties are Mostakbal Watan (Nation's Future Party) [Abdel Wahab Abdel RAZEQ], Homat El-Watan (Homeland’s Defenders Party) [Lt. Gen. (retired) Galal AL-HARIDI], Al Shaab Al-Gomhouri (Republican People’s Party) [Hazim AMR], Wafd [Abdel Sanad YAMAMA] and Modern Egypt [Nabil DEIBIS].

Other parties include:
Reform and Development Party [Mohamad Anwar al-SADAT]
Egyptian Social Democratic Party [Farid ZAHRAN]
Freedom Party [Mamdouuh HASSAN]
Congress Party [Omar Al-Mokhtar SEMIDA]
Al-Nour [Yunis MAKHYUN]
National Progressive Unionist (Tagammu) Party [Sayed Abdel AAL]
Justice Party [Hamdi Stouhi]
Eradet Geel Party [Tayseer Matar]
Egyptian National Movement Party [Gen. Raouf EL SAYED]
Executive Power
The President is the Head of State and the Supreme Commander of the armed forces. He is elected for a six-year term of office. The President is the head of the executive branch and appoints the Prime Minister, who must be approved by a confidence vote in the Parliament. The President also appoints the head of the Council of Ministers. He can dissolve the Assembly and rule by decree.
In February 2019 the Parliament voted to remove the limit of two terms for the President, whose term has been extended from four to six years.
Legislative Power
The legislative power is bicameral since the constitutional referendum of 2019 was approved by the House of Representatives in June 2020. It established an upper chamber called the Senate, composed of 300 seats. The House of Representatives is composed of 596 members elected for a period of 5 years by universal suffrage. The President may dissolve the House of Representatives.
 

Indicator of Freedom of the Press

Definition:

The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:
166/180
 

Indicator of Political Freedom

Definition:

The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Ranking:
Not Free
Political Freedom:
6/7

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House

 

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Actualitzacions: September 2022

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