Finlàndia flag Finlàndia: Visió econòmica i política

El marc polític de Finlàndia

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President: Sauli Niinistö (since 1 March 2012; re-elected for a second six-year term on 28th January 2018)
Prime Minister: Sanna Marin (since 10 December 2019) - Social Democratic Party
Next Election Dates
Presidential: January 2024
Parliament: April 2023
Current Political Context
Since December 2019, Sanna Marin from the Social Democrat (SDP) is leading a centre-left coalition with four other parties – the Centre Party (KESK), the Green League (VIHR), the Left Alliance (VAS) and the Swedish People’s Party (SFP, centre). The five-party coalition focused its action on the containment of the COVID-19 pandemic and on environmentally oriented policies, supporting green industries and technologies.
Lately, the right-wing opposition party National Coalition has been gaining popularity, overtaking the Social Democrats in polls as the main party in the country.
Main Political Parties
Finland has a multi-party system to ensure a single party does not have a chance to gain power alone. Parties work with each other to form coalition governments. The Social Democtratic Party, Finns, and National Coalition Party obtained a similar result in the most recent national elections (40, 39 and 38 seats, respectively). The largest parties include:

- Social Democratic Party (SDP): centre-left
- The Finns (PS): left-wing, nationalist
- National Coalition Party (KOK): centre-right, liberal conservatism, strongly pro-European
- Centre Party (KESK): centre, wields political influence in smaller agrarian communities
- Green Party (VIHR): centre, green politics, liberal
- Left Alliance (VAS): left-wing
- Swedish People's Party (RKP): centre, represents the minority of Swedish speaking people in Finland
- Christian Democrats (KD): centre/centre-right
- The Blue Reform (ST): right, liberal, conservative, soft Eurosceptic.
Executive Power
The President of Finland is the Head of State, leader of foreign policy, and the commander-in-chief of the defence forces. He/she is directly elected by absolute majority for a six-year term, renewable once. The President appoints the Prime Minister. The main executive power lies in the Cabinet which is appointed and headed by the Prime Minister. Before the constitutional rewrite completed in 2000, the President enjoyed more power.
Legislative Power
Legislative power is vested in the Parliament of Finland (Eduskunta), with the Government holding limited rights to amend or extend legislation. It is composed of 200 deputies elected for four years by proportional representation. The President has the power of veto over parliamentary decisions although it can be overrun by the parliament.
 

Indicator of Freedom of the Press

Definition:

The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:
2/180

Source: World Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders

 

Indicator of Political Freedom

Definition:

The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Ranking:
Free
Political Freedom:
1/7

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House

 

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Actualitzacions: May 2022

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