Finlàndia flag Finlàndia: Panorama econòmic

Panorama econòmic

Economic indicators

For the latest updates on the key economic responses from governments to address the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, please consult the IMF's policy tracking platform Policy Responses to COVID-19.

Despite being vulnerable to the international conjuncture, Finland is often cited as a model example for its economic performance, competitiveness and innovative success. After experiencing only a mild contraction following the COVID-19 pandemic, economic activity had already reached its pre-crisis level in mid-2021. According to IMF estimates, GDP grew 2.1% in 2022 (from +3% one year earlier) driven by strong public and private consumption (the latter being underpinned by buoyant demand for services and a strong labour market), as well as by a build-up of inventories. Finland was severely affected by the consequences of the Russia-Ukraine conflict: following its application to join NATO, Russia terminated gas and electricity exports. In this context, high energy prices and inflation, together with weaker external demand, will have a negative impact on the country’s performance, with growth projected at 0.5% in 2023, before it rebounds to 1.1% the following year (IMF – 0.2% and 1.4%, respectively, according to the EU Commission).

Finland’s public finances are generally solid, despite recording public deficits following the COVID-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine (the Finnish government announced additional spending on defence of 0.3% of GDP in 2022 and 0.4% in 2023). According to the latest figures from the IMF, the government budget recorded a deficit of 2% in 2022, which is projected to improve only slightly this year (-1.6% of GDP) due to the measures taken to mitigate the economic and social impact of high energy prices (0.4% of GDP). Similarly, the general government public debt-to-GDP ratio increased to 66.7% in 2022 (from 66.2% one year earlier) and should follow an upward trend over the forecast horizon (67.4% and 69.6% in 2023 and 2024, respectively – IMF). Energy prices contributed to an unprecedented inflation rate of 6.5% in 2022; however, weaker economic activity and lower energy costs are projected to bring the inflation rate down to 3.5% in 2023 and 1.8% in 2024.

Finland's GDP per capita – estimated at USD 58,659 (PPP) in 2022 by the IMF - is among the highest in the world and higher than the EU-27 average, allowing the country to offer a high living standard. The distribution of wealth is relatively balanced, although social inequalities have risen in recent years. Finland is the European country most impacted by an ageing population and the fall of its labour force, a phenomenon that weighs heavily on its public finances. Other challenges that the country will be facing are the decreasing productivity in traditional industries and the need for a reduction of high labour costs. Unemployment stood at 7% in 2022 (from 7.6% one year earlier). The weakening economic conditions, which are already translating into a lower number of vacancies, imply a temporary increase in the unemployment rate in 2023 and 2024 (around 7.4% according to the IMF projections).

GDP Indicators 202020212022 (E)2023 (E)2024 (E)
GDP (billions USD) 271.67296.59281.05301.67310.61
GDP (constant prices, annual % change) -
GDP per capita (USD) 49,16853,59550,65554,35155,957
General government balance (in % of GDP) -3.3-2.2-1.9-2.2-2.2
General government gross debt (in % of GDP) 74.872.674.874.575.9
Inflation rate (%)
Unemployment rate (% of the labor force)
Current Account (billions USD) 1.511.27-11.92-10.18-6.80
Current account (in % of GDP) 0.60.4-4.2-3.4-2.2

Font: IMF – World Economic Outlook Database, 2016

Note: (e) Estimated data

Monetary indicators 20162017201820192020
American Dollar (USD) - Average annual exchange rate for 1 EUR

Font: World Bank, 2015


Return to top

Vols fer algun comentari sobre aquest contingut? Escriu-nos.


© eexpand, Tots els drets reservats.
Actualitzacions: November 2023

Return to top