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El marc polític de França

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President : Emmanuel Macron (since 14 May 2017; re-elected for a second term on 24 April 2022)
Prime Minister: Élisabeth Borne (since 16 May 2022)
Next Election Dates
Presidential elections: April 2027
Senate: September 2023
National Assembly: June 2022
Current Political Context
Since his victory in the April 2017 presidential elections over Marine Le Pen (Rassemblement National, far right), President Emmanuel Macron and his centre-liberal party, La République En Marche (LaREM) have embarked on a vast reform program, aimed at making the labor market more flexible. However, the program to reform the pension system (abolition of special regimes), triggered a large-scale national strike. Since 2020, the  political context was particularly affected by the Covid-19 pandemic. The government supported activity via a EUR 100 billion (4% of GDP) recovery plan. The regional elections of June 2021, characterised by a low turnout of less than 35%, produced a clear defeat for Le Pen and Macron’s parties, and clear wins for incumbents from the traditional parties the Republicans (LR, right) and the Socialist Party. Nonetheless, as the polls predicted, the 2022 presidential elections resulted in a duel between Macron and Le Pen, amid failed attempts to unify the left. In April 2022, Macron was re-elected for an additional 5-year term, but abstention reached a 50 year record, and Le Pen managed to gather 41.46% of the votes. Criticised for its slow COVID-19 vaccination rollout at the beginning of the crisis, France presented one of the highest vaccination rate of the EU in 2021. The question to transform the COVID-19 health pass into a vaccine pass stimulated a debate.

On the international scene, the president intended to strengthen the integration of the euro zone by revitalizing the Franco-German partnership; defend the fight against climate change; and promote a more uninhibited relationship between France and Africa as illustrated by the formalization of the end of the CFA franc and the France-Afrique summit in October 2021. Perceived as a disruptor making unilateral statements without prior consensus with the EU, Macron moved closer to Syria, vetoed the accession to the EU of Albania and Macedonia, and criticized the weakness of NATO. Among Macron’s priorities for the French Presidency of the Council of the EU are a reform of the visa-free Schengen travel zone, migration and Europe’s history.
Main Political Parties
- The Socialist Party (PS): centre-left
- The Republicans: centre-right
- En Marche: centre, new liberal political movement founded by Emmanuel Macron
- National Rally (RN): far-right; first parliamentary representation in 1997 and gaining support amid growing voter scepticism towards the EU
- The Left Front (FDG): left to far-left
- The Democratic Movement (MoDem): centrist
- Europe Ecology - The Greens (EELV): emphasises ecology and peaceful and sustainable lifestyles
- La France Insoumise (Unbowed France) (FI): far-left
- French Communist Party (PCF): communism, soft euro-scepticism
Executive Power
The President of the Republic is the Head of State. He/She is elected by direct universal suffrage for five years. He/She appoints the Prime Minister and his/her Government at the suggestion of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister sets the amount of the State's expenses and revenue, and prepares some bills.
Legislative Power
The parliament is composed of the Senate and the National Assembly. The 348 senators are elected by indirect universal suffrage for nine years, renewable by a one-third majority vote every three years. The 577 deputies (MPs) are elected by direct universal suffrage. They examine bills and private bills successively, vote laws and monitor the Government. The economic, social and environmental council has an advisory function (optional or compulsory) within the framework of the legislative process.

Indicator of Freedom of the Press


The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:

Indicator of Political Freedom


The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Political Freedom:

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House


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Actualitzacions: January 2023

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