Indonèsia flag Indonèsia: Visió econòmica i política

El marc polític d'Indonèsia

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President: Joko Widodo (since 20 October 2014) - PDI-P
Vice-President: Ma'ruf Amin (since 20 October 2019) - Independent
Next Election Dates
Presidential: 2024
House of Representatives: 2024
Current Political Context
The government led by the President Joko Widodo, who was re-elected for a second five-year term in May 2019, focuses on structural reform and improving governance. It has begun a thorough overhaul of the energy subsidy programme, which will fund infrastructure renovation and provide aid to the agricultural sector. With a focus on domestic issues during his second term, the president reaffirmed the reform agenda in 2020, particularly regarding labour, healthcare and infrastructure, in order to lure foreign investments and bolster growth. Seeking to push forward the reform agenda with ease, Joko Widodo brought key opponents into his cabinet to form a broad coalition, hoping that it would weaken critics over the government. The Omnibus Bill was passed and signed into law in October 2020 and could reform labour, taxes and other important laws in order to reduce bureaucracy and stimulate investment in a post-pandemic economy. Moreover, to respond to the COVID-19 crisis, the Government has announced a fiscal package amounting to 4.3 percent of GDP. The package includes funds to improve the preparedness of the health sector and a substantial increase in social assistance.

In 2021, the President Joko Widodo pulled another political party, the National Mandate Party, into his expanding coalition, which now controls 82 percent of the 575 seats in the House of Representatives. Despite growing public concern about pressures on civil liberties and the government’s pandemic difficulties, he remains incredibly popular with Indonesian voters. The President has accelerated the construction of dozens of much-needed highways, ports, and airports, with traffic-clogged Jakarta getting the country’s first-ever subway line in 2019. But in 2021, in the context of an aggravating COVID crisis, he struggled to deliver on his promises of high economic growth, pro-business reform, and improved social welfare.

President Joko Widodo, constitutionally barred from a third term, will lose influence as would-be successors jostle for position ahead of elections in 2024, but he will double down on efforts to attract increasing foreign direct investment into downstream heavy industries before his final term ends in mid-2024. His administration will make only token gestures on other pressing political matters, including addressing the political strife in Indonesia's Eastern provinces and reducing corruption. As Indonesia is bracing for a tumultuous political year in 2023, as parties gear up for the upcoming general elections next year, Joko Widodo's preferred successor, the current governor of Central Java, Ganjar Pranowo, should secure the presidency in 2024. Most other parties in the ruling coalition have yet to nominate their presidential candidates, while those which have are still leaving the door open for changes.

Uncertainties in an election year will undoubtedly have an impact on the economy, especially regarding investments, according to Center of Reform on Economics (CORE) Indonesia executive director Mohammad Faisal.

Main Political Parties
Single parties have little chance of garnering power alone. Thus, parties often work together to form coalition governments. Primary representation in parliament consists of both nationalist secular parties and moderate and Islamic-oriented groups. The major parties are:
Governing Coalition
- Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P): centre-left, follows Pancasila’ideology based on the five founding principles of the Constitution; split-away group from the PD, led by ex-President Megawati Sukarnoputri
- Party of Functional Groups (Golkar): follows conservative liberalism, advocates democratic and liberal values
- National Awakening Party (PKB): Islamist, Pancasila ideoligy, nationalism
- United Development Party (PPP): Islamic democracy, nationalist islamism, Pancasila ideology
- National Mandate Party (PAN), Islamic democracy, Pancasila ideology
- Democratic Party (PD): centrist, Pancasila ideology
- Prosperous Justice Party (PKS), Islamist, conservative
-Great Indonesia Movement Party (Gerindra), conservatism, nationalism, populism
Executive Power
The President is both the head of the State and the head of the Government. The President enjoys the executive power and appoints the cabinet. Both the President and the Vice-President are elected through direct universal suffrage for five-year terms. The President is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and responsible for domestic governance and policy-making and foreign affairs.
Legislative Power
The legislature in Indonesia is bicameral. The highest representative body at the national level is the parliament of the country, the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR). It consists of the DPR (House of People’s Representatives - lower house) with 575 members elected directly to serve five-year terms, and the DPD (House of Regional Representatives - upper house) with 136 seats, each province electing 4 members on a non-party basis. The President cannot dissolve the parliament but he has the power to veto bills. In turn, a super-majority of legislators may act to override the veto. The people of Indonesia have limited political rights.

Indicator of Freedom of the Press


The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:

Indicator of Political Freedom


The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Partly Free
Political Freedom:

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House


Return to top

Vols fer algun comentari sobre aquest contingut? Escriu-nos.


© eexpand, Tots els drets reservats.
Actualitzacions: November 2023

Return to top