Macedònia del Nord flag Macedònia del Nord: Visió econòmica i política

Xifres de comerç exterior de Macedònia del Nord

Foreign Trade in Figures

North Macedonia has an open economy and is highly integrated into international trade, with a total trade-to-GDP ratio of over 129.1% (World Bank, latest data available). The country mainly exports reaction initiators and accelerators (20%), centrifuges (11.7%), and insulated wires (8.6%); importing platinum (13%), ceramic wares (4.3%), and petroleum oils (4.1%).

In 2020, its main export partners were Germany, which accounted for almost half of total exports alone (47.2%), Serbia (7.9%), Bulgaria (4.7%), and Greece (3%); with the main import origins being the United Kingdom (15.6%), Germany (10.7%), Serbia (7.8%), and China (6.9% - data Comtrade).

North Macedonia became a member of the WTO (World Trade Organisation) in April 2003. Following a cooperation agreement with 22the EU, North Macedonia signed a Stabilisation and Association Agreement in April 2001, which concedes the country duty-free access to European markets. Lastly, in 2006 the country became a member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA), generally considered as the antechamber of the EU.

North Macedonia's trade structure has been traditionally in deficit, however, the gap between imports and exports had been gradually decreasing in recent years. In 2020, the country exported goods worth USD 6.6 billion – a 7.7% decrease compared to the previous year – importing USD 8.7 billion (-8%). With regard to services, North Macedonia exported USD 1.6 billion of commercial services, importing USD 1.1 billion (data by WTO). The World Bank estimates the country’s 2020 overall trade deficit at 12.8% of GDP.
 According to preliminary data from the State Statistical Office, the total value of exported goods from the Republic of North Macedonia in the period January-December 2021 amounted to USD 8.1 billion, a 19.7% increase compared to the same period one year earlier; whereas the value of imported goods stood at USD 11.4 billion, 26.8% more year-on-year. In the same year Germany, Great Britain, Serbia, Greece and China were the most important trade partners.

 
Foreign Trade Values 20162017201820192020
Imports of Goods (million USD) 6,7577,7239,0509,4718,710
Exports of Goods (million USD) 4,7875,6686,9117,1896,635
Imports of Services (million USD) 1,1561,1831,3971,4181,118
Exports of Services (million USD) 1,5981,6281,8541,8211,643

Source: World Trade Organisation (WTO) ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Indicators 20162017201820192020
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 116.2124.1133.2138.8129.1
Trade Balance (million USD) -2,009-2,014-2,055-2,205-2,066
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) -1,631-1,588-1,612-1,813-1,579
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 11.15.29.110.5-10.5
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 9.18.315.64.6-10.9
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 65.569.072.876.570.9
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 50.755.160.462.358.1

Source: World Bank ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Forecasts 20212022 (e)2023 (e)2024 (e)2025 (e)
Volume of exports of goods and services (Annual % change) 8.28.78.78.88.9
Volume of imports of goods and services (Annual % change) 6.77.48.08.78.8

Source: IMF, World Economic Outlook ; Latest available data

Note: (e) Estimated Data

 
International Economic Cooperation
Member of CEFTA (Central European Free Trade Agreement).  It also has Free Trade agreements with Turkey and Ukraine, and Stabilization and Association agreements with the European Union.
 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2020
Germany 47.2%
Serbia 7.9%
Bulgaria 4.7%
Greece 3.0%
Hungary 3.0%
See More Countries 34.3%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2020
United Kingdom 15.6%
Germany 10.7%
Serbia 7.8%
China 6.9%
Greece 5.9%
See More Countries 53.2%

Source: Comtrade, 2021. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

Main Products

6.6 bn USD of products exported in 2020
Reaction initiators, reaction accelerators and...Reaction initiators, reaction accelerators and catalytic preparations, n.e.s. (excl. rubber accelerators) 20.0%
Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those...Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those for isotope separation); filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus, for liquids or gases; parts thereof (excl. artificial kidneys) 11.7%
Insulated incl. enamelled or anodised wire, cable...Insulated incl. enamelled or anodised wire, cable incl. coaxial cable and other insulated electric conductors, whether or not fitted with connectors; optical fibre cables, made-up of individually sheathed fibres, whether or not assembled with electric conductors or fitted with connectors 8.6%
Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and...Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. medical, surgical, dental or veterinary of heading 9402) 3.6%
Ferro-alloysFerro-alloys 3.4%
See More Products 52.7%
8.7 bn USD of products imported in 2020
Platinum, incl. palladium, rhodium, iridium,...Platinum, incl. palladium, rhodium, iridium, osmium and ruthenium, unwrought or in semi-manufactured forms, or in powder form 13.0%
Ceramic wares for laboratory, chemical or other...Ceramic wares for laboratory, chemical or other technical uses; ceramic troughs, tubs and similar receptacles used in agriculture; ceramic pots, jars and similar articles used for the conveyance or packing of goods (excl. millstones, polishing stones, grindstones and the like of heading 6804; refractory ceramic goods; household articles; containers for shops; electrical devices, insulators and other insulating fittings) 4.3%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 4.1%
Colloidal precious metals; inorganic or organic...Colloidal precious metals; inorganic or organic compounds of precious metals, whether or not chemically defined; amalgams of precious metals 2.9%
Insulated incl. enamelled or anodised wire, cable...Insulated incl. enamelled or anodised wire, cable incl. coaxial cable and other insulated electric conductors, whether or not fitted with connectors; optical fibre cables, made-up of individually sheathed fibres, whether or not assembled with electric conductors or fitted with connectors 2.3%
See More Products 73.4%

Source: Comtrade, 2021. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

To go further, check out our service Import Export Flows.

 

Main Services

0.0 bn USD of services exported in 2018
44.79%
28.74%
18.45%
3.28%
2.59%
1.14%
0.66%
0.34%
0.0 bn USD of services imported in 2018
34.39%
22.46%
17.21%
10.92%
5.64%
3.56%
2.37%
1.89%
0.87%
0.70%

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2021. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

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Actualitzacions: April 2022

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