Macedònia del Nord flag Macedònia del Nord: Visió econòmica i política

Xifres de comerç exterior de Macedònia del Nord

Foreign Trade in Figures

North Macedonia has an open economy and is highly integrated into international trade, with a total trade-to-GDP ratio of over 171% (World Bank, latest data available). According to data from the State Statistical Office, in 2022 the country mainly exported supported catalysts containing precious metals or their compounds as active substances, ignition wiring sets, other wiring sets used in vehicles, aircraft, or ships, parts of seats falling under subgroup 821.1, and other supported catalysts. Regarding imports, the key products comprise petroleum oils derived from bituminous minerals (excluding crude), other metals of the platinum group and their alloys in unwrought or powdered form, unwrought or powdered platinum and platinum alloys, and motor vehicles for transporting individuals, not elsewhere specified.

In 2023, the country’s main export partners were Germany, which accounted for almost half of the total exports alone (44%), Serbia (4.8%), Kosovo (4.8%), Bulgaria (4.4%), and Greece (3.7%); with the main import origins being Germany (24.8%), the United Kingdom (7.8%), Greece (6.9%), China (5.7%), and Serbia (5.6% - data State Statistical Office). Overall, the EU accounted for 78.6% of total exports and 49.1% of imports. North Macedonia became a member of the WTO (World Trade Organisation) in April 2003. Following a cooperation agreement with the EU, North Macedonia signed a Stabilisation and Association Agreement, which concedes the country duty-free access to European markets. Lastly, in 2006, the country became a member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA), generally considered the antechamber of the EU.

North Macedonia's trade structure has been traditionally in deficit. In 2022, the country exported goods worth USD 8.7 billion – a 6.6% increase compared to the previous year – importing USD 12.7 billion (+12% y-o-y). With regard to services, North Macedonia exported USD 2.4 billion in commercial services, importing USD 1.6 billion (data by WTO). The World Bank estimated the country’s 2022 overall trade deficit at 21% of GDP (from 15.8% one year earlier). According to preliminary data from the State Statistical Office, the total value of exported goods from the Republic of North Macedonia in the period January-December 2023 amounted to USD 8.3 billion, a 0.3% increase compared to the same period one year earlier; whereas the value of imported goods stood at USD 11.1 billion, 8.1% less year-on-year.

 
Foreign Trade Values 20192020202120222023
Imports of Goods (million USD) 9,4718,71511,38612,75512,056
Exports of Goods (million USD) 7,1896,6388,1868,7278,999
Imports of Services (million USD) 1,4411,1771,4661,6472,076
Exports of Services (million USD) 1,8181,6552,0632,4322,865

Source: World Trade Organisation (WTO) ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Indicators 20182019202020212022
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 133.2138.6128.2148.5170.8
Trade Balance (million USD) -2,055-2,182-2,060-2,792-3,639
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) -1,612-1,805-1,583-2,197-2,865
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 10.710.1-10.911.916.1
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 12.88.9-10.911.713.4
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 72.876.270.582.395.9
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 60.462.457.866.274.9

Source: World Bank ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Forecasts 20232024 (e)2025 (e)2026 (e)2027 (e)
Volume of exports of goods and services (Annual % change) -0.1-0.63.44.74.9
Volume of imports of goods and services (Annual % change) -5.81.75.94.75.4

Source: IMF, World Economic Outlook ; Latest available data

Note: (e) Estimated Data

 
International Economic Cooperation
Member of CEFTA (Central European Free Trade Agreement).  It also has Free Trade agreements with Turkey and Ukraine, and Stabilization and Association agreements with the European Union.
 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2022
Germany 45.1%
Serbia 9.2%
Bulgaria 5.0%
Greece 3.9%
Hungary 3.1%
See More Countries 33.8%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2022
United Kingdom 15.8%
Greece 11.2%
Germany 8.6%
China 7.8%
Serbia 7.1%
See More Countries 49.5%

Source: Comtrade, 2024. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

Main Products

8.7 bn USD of products exported in 2022
Reaction initiators, reaction accelerators and...Reaction initiators, reaction accelerators and catalytic preparations, n.e.s. (excl. rubber accelerators) 30.1%
Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire,...Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire, cable "incl. coaxial cable" and other insulated electric conductors, whether or not fitted with connectors; optical fibre cables, made up of individually sheathed fibres, whether or not assembled with electric conductors or fitted with connectors 7.2%
Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and...Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. medical, surgical, dental or veterinary of heading 9402) 3.0%
Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles...Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705, n.e.s. 2.9%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled, not clad, plated or coated 2.7%
See More Products 54.0%
12.8 bn USD of products imported in 2022
Platinum, incl. palladium, rhodium, iridium,...Platinum, incl. palladium, rhodium, iridium, osmium and ruthenium, unwrought or in semi-manufactured forms, or in powder form 11.2%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 8.9%
Electrical energyElectrical energy 4.9%
Colloidal precious metals; inorganic or organic...Colloidal precious metals; inorganic or organic compounds of precious metals, whether or not chemically defined; amalgams of precious metals 4.0%
Petroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbonsPetroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbons 3.1%
See More Products 67.8%

Source: Comtrade, 2024. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

To go further, check out our service Import-Export Flows.

 

Main Services

2.3 bn USD of services exported in 2022
26.60%
25.51%
20.64%
19.99%
2.81%
2.30%
1.34%
0.59%
0.18%
0.04%
n/a%
1.6 bn USD of services imported in 2022
34.23%
19.13%
17.79%
8.42%
6.35%
4.86%
3.99%
2.21%
1.23%
1.12%
0.67%

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2024. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

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Actualitzacions: May 2024

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