Macedònia del Nord flag Macedònia del Nord: Visió econòmica i política

Xifres de comerç exterior de Macedònia del Nord

Foreign Trade in Figures

North Macedonia has an open economy and is highly integrated into international trade, with a total trade-to-GDP ratio of over 148% (World Bank, latest data available). According to data from the State Statistical Office, in 2022 the country mainly exported catalysts with precious metal or precious metal compounds as the active substance, ignition wiring sets and other wiring sets of a kind used in vehicles, and aircraft or ships; while imports were led by petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude), other metals of the platinum group and alloys thereof, unwrought or in powder form, and electricity and colloidal precious metals.

In 2022, the cuntry’s main export partners were Germany, which accounted for almost half of the total exports alone (45.1%), Bulgaria (5%), Serbia (4.6%), Kosovo (4.6%), and Greece (4%); with the main import origins being Germany (23.4%), the United Kingdom (10.2%), Greece (8.3%), Serbia (5.6%), and China (4.9% - data State Statistical Office). Overall, the EU accounted for 78.3% of total exports and 46.8% of imports. North Macedonia became a member of the WTO (World Trade Organisation) in April 2003. Following a cooperation agreement with the EU, North Macedonia signed a Stabilisation and Association Agreement, which concedes the country duty-free access to European markets. Lastly, in 2006 the country became a member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA), generally considered the antechamber of the EU.

North Macedonia's trade structure has been traditionally in deficit, however, the gap between imports and exports had been gradually decreasing in recent years. In 2021, the country exported goods worth USD 8.1 billion – a 23.3% increase compared to the previous year – importing USD 11.3 billion (+30% y-o-y). With regard to services, North Macedonia exported USD 2 billion in commercial services, importing USD 1.4 billion (data by WTO). The World Bank estimated the country’s 2021 overall trade deficit at 16% of GDP (from 12.7% one year earlier). According to preliminary data from the State Statistical Office, the total value of exported goods from the Republic of North Macedonia in the period January-December 2022 amounted to USD 8.7 billion, a 6.6% increase compared to the same period one year earlier; whereas the value of imported goods stood at USD 12.7 billion, 12% more year-on-year.

Foreign Trade Values 20172018201920202021
Imports of Goods (million USD) 7,7239,0509,4718,71011,386
Exports of Goods (million USD) 5,6686,9117,1896,6358,186
Imports of Services (million USD) 1,1831,3971,4181,1181,460
Exports of Services (million USD) 1,6281,8541,8211,6432,058

Source: World Trade Organisation (WTO) ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Indicators 20172018201920202021
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 124.1133.2138.6128.2148.5
Trade Balance (million USD) -2,014-2,055-2,182-2,060-2,792
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) -1,588-1,612-1,805-1,583-2,197
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 5.210.710.1-10.913.9
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 8.312.88.9-10.912.3
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 69.072.876.270.582.3
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 55.160.462.457.866.2

Source: World Bank ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Forecasts 20222023 (e)2024 (e)2025 (e)2026 (e)
Volume of exports of goods and services (Annual % change)
Volume of imports of goods and services (Annual % change)

Source: IMF, World Economic Outlook ; Latest available data

Note: (e) Estimated Data

International Economic Cooperation
Member of CEFTA (Central European Free Trade Agreement).  It also has Free Trade agreements with Turkey and Ukraine, and Stabilization and Association agreements with the European Union.

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
Germany 46.8%
Serbia 8.6%
Bulgaria 4.8%
Hungary 3.1%
Italy 3.0%
See More Countries 33.7%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
United Kingdom 17.7%
Germany 10.2%
Serbia 7.6%
Greece 7.6%
China 6.7%
See More Countries 50.2%

Source: Comtrade, 2022. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.


Main Products

8.2 bn USD of products exported in 2021
Reaction initiators, reaction accelerators and...Reaction initiators, reaction accelerators and catalytic preparations, n.e.s. (excl. rubber accelerators) 23.0%
Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those...Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those for isotope separation); filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus, for liquids or gases; parts thereof (excl. artificial kidneys) 10.9%
Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire,...Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire, cable "incl. coaxial cable" and other insulated electric conductors, whether or not fitted with connectors; optical fibre cables, made up of individually sheathed fibres, whether or not assembled with electric conductors or fitted with connectors 7.7%
Ferro-alloysFerro-alloys 3.5%
Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and...Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. medical, surgical, dental or veterinary of heading 9402) 3.2%
See More Products 51.6%
11.4 bn USD of products imported in 2021
Platinum, incl. palladium, rhodium, iridium,...Platinum, incl. palladium, rhodium, iridium, osmium and ruthenium, unwrought or in semi-manufactured forms, or in powder form 12.4%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 5.6%
Colloidal precious metals; inorganic or organic...Colloidal precious metals; inorganic or organic compounds of precious metals, whether or not chemically defined; amalgams of precious metals 5.0%
Ceramic wares for laboratory, chemical or other...Ceramic wares for laboratory, chemical or other technical uses; ceramic troughs, tubs and similar receptacles used in agriculture; ceramic pots, jars and similar articles used for the conveyance or packing of goods (excl. millstones, polishing stones, grindstones and the like of heading 6804; refractory ceramic goods; household articles; containers for shops; electrical devices, insulators and other insulating fittings) 3.7%
Electrical energyElectrical energy 2.9%
See More Products 70.6%

Source: Comtrade, 2022. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.


To go further, check out our service Import Export Flows.


Main Services

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

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Actualitzacions: June 2023

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