Madagascar flag Madagascar: Invertir a Madagascar

Inversió estrangera directa (IED) a Madagascar

FDI in Figures

FDI inflows to Madagascar had been declining in the past years due to the country’s political crisis, and in the context of a challenging global environment, that trend continued. Policy and institutional reforms and infrastructure projects that were expected to improve investment climate did not materialize (US Department of State). According to UNCTAD's World Investment Report 2022, the country received USD 300 million in FDI inflows in 2021, down from USD 358 million in 2020. The stock of FDI reached USD 8.64 billion in 2021. According to UNCTAD’s Investment Trends Monitor, global FDI momentum weakened in 2022 in the context of the war in Ukraine, rising food and energy prices, financial turmoil and debt pressures. Mauritius, China, the Netherlands and France are the main investors in the country (IMF). The main investment opportunities concern the mining, infrastructure, textiles, energy, tourism and agri-business sectors. In 2018, an agreement was signed between the Malagasy Economic Development and Business Development Agency (AMDP) and the Chinese consortium Taihe Century Investments Developments co. Ltd. The agreement involves a global investment of 2.7 billion USD over ten years, targeting six projects, in particular in the fields of fishing, aquaculture, the fight against illegal fishing, shipyards and recreation centres. The Malagasy government enacted various reforms to improve the business climate, including some related to company creation, granting construction permits and trans-border trade. However, the special economic zones have not attracted enough sustainable and quality investment. The Plan Emergence Madagascar (PEM) is expected to attract investments related to the construction of new road infrastructure, the development of water supply, and the energy and mining sectors (Coface). As Madagascar is hosting the 2023 Island Games, the construction and renovation of sports infrastructure will be stimulated.

There is no law prohibiting or limiting foreign investment in the country, but many obstacles make investment difficult. Madagascar has enormous natural potential, but the poor and costly quality of infrastructure, limited access to credit and financial instruments, as well as the poor definition of property titles, are all obstacles to investment. Political instability and corruption have blocked all public investment and caused the departure of many investors. Although Malagasy law treats foreign and local investors equally, foreign companies are often subject to criminal prosecution for questionable taxes, labour law violations or other reasons. The administration of President Andry Rajoelina has promised to revive the economy and stressed the importance of improving the business and investment climate, citing growth driven by the private sector as a driver of future economic development. Rejected three times by the National Assembly, a law on the recovery of illicit assets was adopted in 2019.

 
Foreign Direct Investment 202020212022
FDI Inward Flow (million USD) 358358396
FDI Stock (million USD) 8,3388,6969,092
Number of Greenfield Investments* 721
Value of Greenfield Investments (million USD) 3541318

Source: UNCTAD, Latest available data

Note: * Greenfield Investments are a form of Foreign Direct Investment where a parent company starts a new venture in a foreign country by constructing new operational facilities from the ground up.

 
Country Comparison For the Protection of Investors Madagascar Sub-Saharan Africa United States Germany
Index of Transaction Transparency* 7.0 5.5 7.0 5.0
Index of Manager’s Responsibility** 6.0 3.5 9.0 5.0
Index of Shareholders’ Power*** 5.0 5.5 9.0 5.0

Source: Doing Business, Latest available data

Note: *The Greater the Index, the More Transparent the Conditions of Transactions. **The Greater the Index, the More the Manager is Personally Responsible. *** The Greater the Index, the Easier it Will Be For Shareholders to Take Legal Action.

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What to consider if you invest in Madagascar

Strong Points

Reasons to invest in Madagascar include the following:

  • Abundant natural resources (gemstones, industrial and decorative stones, oil, and rare metals for mining activities; a big and fertile land with a favourable climate)
  • Low cost of local inputs and labour
  • The strategic location between Asia and Africa
  • Improving business environment
  • Political stability since 2009
  • Developing tourism sector
  • Public debt mainly on concessional terms
  • Incentives to export-driven companies with export processing zone status
Weak Points

Several factors still hinder Madagascar's FDI attractiveness:

  • Dependency on agricultural and mining products
  • Inadequate infrastructures (road, hydraulic and electrical networks)
  • Dependency on foreign aid
  • High levels of poverty (in 2019 75% of the population lived on less than USD 1.90 a day - World Bank, latest data available)
  • The Malagasy people are subject to poor access to electricity (with a 15% rate access to electricity in 2019 - World Bank, latest data available)
  • Weak financial system
  • High risks of corruption in both public and private sector
  • Limited access to education for the Malagasy population
Government Measures to Motivate or Restrict FDI
The government of Madagascar is trying to make the country a more attractive destination for FDI, through several initiatives and incentives. For instance, companies active in the renewable energy, tourism, industrial, civil work and construction sectors can benefit from a tax reduction equal to the tax calculated on 50% of the amount of investment that they realised during the related tax year. Similarly, the petroleum code provides a custom and importation duties exemption for hydrocarbon research, exploration, and exploitation activities. A mining company committing to invest more than USD 50 million can benefit from a minimum income tax exemption, a reduced corporate income tax rate for the transformation entity, exemption from custom and importation duties, and VAT reimbursement on locally purchased equipment and investments.
Furthermore, the Malagasy government has set up Export Processing Zones (EPZ). Export-driven companies located in the EPZ can enjoy tax exemption upon company registration; a reduced dividend tax rate at 10%; exemption from professional taxes; income tax exemption for the first five years (10% tax thereafter); exemption from customs duties and taxes on imported equipment and inputs; free transfer of funds upon the termination of activities.

The Economic Development Board Madagascar, Madagascar's one-stop-shop for investment, manages business registration, which on average is completed within one to two weeks of receipt of complete documentation, one of the shortest times in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Bilateral investment conventions signed by Madagascar
Consult the site of the Economic Development Board Madagascar.
 

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Actualitzacions: January 2024

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