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Impostos a Mèxic

Tax Rates

Consumption Taxes

Nature of the Tax
VAT, called 'Impuesto al Valor Agregado' or 'IVA'.
Tax Rate
16%
Reduced Tax Rate
The supply of goods and services, as well as the use or enjoyment of goods in locals or establishments located in the cross-border zone (North and South), are subject to a reduced rate of 8%.
The 0% VAT rate is applicable to a substantial number of transactions, including the exportation of goods and certain services, unprocessed food and milk; patented medicines; feminine hygiene products; etc.
Other Consumption Taxes
Excise duties apply on gasoline (% variable), beer (26.5%), wine (26.5% to 53%), spirits (53%), cigarettes and other tobacco products (160% plus an additional quota), services for raffles and gambling (30%), soft drinks (MXN 1/litre), "junk" food (8%), and telecommunications services (3%).
The acquisition of new vehicles is subject to taxation, while the different states may impose a tax on the ownership of vehicles.

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Corporate Taxes

Company Tax
30%
Tax Rate For Foreign Companies
Mexican resident taxpayers’ are subject to corporate income tax from worldwide sources, whereas foreign residents are taxed on the income attributed to their permanent establishments in Mexico.
Foreign enterprises established in Mexico are subject to the same tax system as national enterprises, though they do benefit from certain exemptions. Although various states have started to offer competing tax incentives to attract foreign investors, the majority of taxes in Mexico are levied at the federal level.
Capital Gains Taxation

Gains on securities are included in regular taxable income.
When stocks issued by Mexican companies, securities that exclusively represent these shares, stocks issued by foreign companies listed on the Mexican stock market, and derivative financial operations based on stock indexes or the aforementioned shares are sold in recognized stock or derivative markets according to the Securities Market Law, the resulting capital gains will be subject to a 10% income tax rate.

For the purpose of calculating the taxable gain of real estate, the cost basis of the land and buildings may be increased for tax purposes, based on the duration of asset holding, through the application of inflation adjustment factors to the net undepreciated balance. Non-residents who choose to pay tax on net income by appointing a legal representative in Mexico are subject to similar rules, with the net gain taxed at a rate of 35% (or a lower rate as specified in a treaty). If not, the non-resident is subject to a final withholding tax (WHT) of 25% on the gross income. Gains or losses from the disposal of machinery, equipment, and other fixed assets are also determined by adjusting the basis of these assets through the application of inflation factors to the net undepreciated balance.

Main Allowable Deductions and Tax Credits
In general, all federal, state, and local (including the municipal tax on real estate) taxes levied on a company (not including taxes on acquisitions of fixed assets and real estate and CIT) are tax-deductible expenses.

Start-up expenditure incurred prior to the commencement of business may be amortised at the yearly rate of 10%, after applying the adjustment factors. The deduction of charitable contributions is limited to 7% of the taxable income of the previous year.
As a general rule, interest expenses can be considered deductible expenses provided that certain conditions are met. These conditions include investing the principal in the main activity of the Mexican taxpayer, fulfilling withholding obligations, submitting informative returns that disclose information about the loan and transactions with related parties, complying with thin capitalisation rules (which require a 3:1 debt-to-equity ratio), ensuring that the transaction is carried out at arm's length, and ensuring that the interest payment does not meet the criteria of a deemed dividend. Furthermore, a limitation applies to net interest (i.e. taxable accrued interest minus deductible interest) that exceeds 30% of an adjusted taxable profit amount. It is important to note that this limitation only applies to taxpayers whose deductible accrued interest exceeds MXN 20 million, which must be determined on a Mexican group basis or a related party basis.

R&D expenditure (including investment in R&D) gives rise to a 30% tax credit. The tax credit is equal to current-year R&D expenses in excess of the average R&D expenses incurred in the previous three years.

For payments related to technical assistance, the transfer of technology, or royalties to be considered deductible, they must be made directly to companies that possess the necessary technical expertise to provide the relevant service. If payments are made to foreign affiliates, they will only be considered deductible if they adhere to the arm's-length principle.

Net operating losses can be carried forward up to 10 years, subject to adjustments for inflation. The carryback of losses is not permitted.

Non-deductible items include penalties, unauthorised donations, contingencies, indemnities, goodwill, exempt salaries, etc.

Other Corporate Taxes
After their first year of operations, companies may be subject to employee profit-sharing tax (10%), as well as special excise taxes on production and services (tax losses cannot be applied against the profit-sharing base, and no later than May of the year following the year in which the profits were generated).
The transfer of real estate is subject to a tax at rates ranging from 2% to 5% on the highest of the value of the transaction, fair market value, or registered municipality value (some exceptions apply). Real property taxes are levied by the states at different rates.

Companies engaged in oil exploration and production are subject to a special tax regime as set out in the Hydrocarbons Revenue Law.

Social security contributions are based on the daily salary plus any other compensation paid to the employee, with rates varying according to the base salary of their Mexican employees and the type of concepts for which the compensation is given to the employee (ranging from 15% to 25%). For a low-risk company, the employer's maximum annual contribution is MXN 195,235. However, this limit may be higher depending on the employer's occupational risk premium, which is determined by the employer's activity. These maximum contributions apply only to employees who earn more than MXN 940,800 per year (or MXN 78,400 per month).

The acquisition of new vehicles is subject to taxation, while the different states may impose a tax on the ownership of vehicles. Mexico does not levy stamp duties.

Country Comparison For Corporate Taxation

  Mexico Latin America & Caribbean United States Germany
Number of Payments of Taxes per Year 6.0 28.2 10.6 9.0
Time Taken For Administrative Formalities (Hours) 240.5 327.5 175.0 218.0
Total Share of Taxes (% of Profit) 55.1 46.8 36.6 48.8

Source: Doing Business, Latest available data.

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Individual Taxes

Tax Rate

Annual Tax Rates for Resident Individuals Vary from 1.92% to 35% (2023)
from MXN 1 to 8,952.49 1.92%
from MXN 8,952.50 to 75,984.55 6.4%
from MXN 75,984.56 to 133,536.07 10.88%
from MXN 133,536.08 to 155,229.80 16%
from MXN 155,229.81 to 185,852.57 17.92%
from MXN 185,852.58 to 374,837.88 21.36%
from MXN 374,837.89 to 590,795.99 23.52%
from MXN 590,796.00 to 1,127,926.84 30%
from MXN 1,127,926.85 to 1,503,902.46 32%
from MXN 1,503,902.47 to 4,511,707.37 34%
over MXN 4,511,707.38 35%
Allowable Deductions and Tax Credits
Deductions are subject to an annual limit equal to the lesser of 15% of the yearly overall income of the taxpayer or an amount equal to five annual UMA (a maximum of MXN 189,222 in 2023).
Deductions are granted for business expenses, medical, hospital and dental expenses as well as a limited amount of medical insurance, retirement annuities, mortgage interest, etc. Personal allowances are also granted to the taxpayer and his or her dependents.
Contributions made to authorised charities are deductible, limited to 7% of the prior year's taxable income. Home mortgage interest (adjusted for inflation) is deductible, subject to certain limits.
Taxpayers are allowed to deduct tuition expenses paid for their spouse, children, parents, and themselves. The maximum amount deductible per student varies from MXN 12,900 to MXN 24,500, depending on the level of education.
Resident taxpayers are allowed to deduct un-reimbursed medical, dental, nutritionist, psychologist, health insurance premiums, and funeral expenses for themselves and their dependents when they are not paid in cash.

Business owners and independent professionals can generally enjoy the same deductions as corporations.

More information regarding deductions can be found on the Mexican Federal Tax Administration website.

Special Expatriate Tax Regime
Residents must pay taxes for their worldwide income, non-residents must pay only for income earned from Mexican sources. No special regime applies to expatriates.
If an employee is considered a non-resident for Mexican tax purposes, the tax rate applicable to compensation will vary from 15% (MXN 125,900 to 1 million) to 30% (above MXN 1 million). The first MXN 125,900 of employment income received in a 12-month floating period will be tax-exempt.
Non-residents are subject to withholding taxes on Mexican-source interest income, with rates between 0% and 35%. Gains arising from sales of real property located in Mexico and the sale of shares of Mexican companies outside the Mexican stock exchange are also subject to taxation: in general, the non-resident investor can elect to pay either a flat rate of 25% of the gross proceeds or 35% of the net gain. Sales of shares in the Mexican stock exchange are subject to a flat 10% tax withholding.

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Double Taxation Treaties

Countries With Whom a Double Taxation Treaty Have Been Signed
List of double taxation agreements signed by Mexico
Withholding Taxes
Dividends: 0 (resident companies)/10% (resident individuals and non-residents); Interest: 0 (resident companies)/up to 20% (to resident individuals)/from 4.9% (paid to foreign banks) to 35% (standard rate for non-residents) / 40% (if paid to a related party located in a tax haven); Royalties: 0 (resident companies and individuals)/25% (standard for non-residents)/35% (patents and trademarks paid to non-residents)/40% (if paid to a related party located in a tax haven).
Bilateral Agreement
Spain and Mexico signed a Double Taxation Treaty that was amended by protocol on 17 December 2015.

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Actualitzacions: February 2024

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