Perú flag Perú: Visió econòmica i política

Xifres de comerç exterior de Perú

Foreign Trade in Figures

Peru is a member of the WTO and very open to international trade, which represents 55.5% of GDP. The country mainly exports copper (31.2%), gold (13.7%), petroleum oils (3.3%), flours (3.2%), and petroleum gas (3%), while it imports petroleum oils (11.7%), motor vehicles (5.5%), telephone sets (3.6%), automatic data processing machines and units (2.6%), and maize (2.2%).

The country's main trade partners are China, the United States, Brazil, South Korea, Japan, Canada, Argentina, and Mexico. Peru's development strategy is based on an open and competitive economy. Trade agreements, in particular, are one of the government's main targets, as these agreements are a valuable instrument for attracting FDI and boosting productivity. Nearly 95% of Peru's exports are covered by Free Trade Agreements currently in force, which enables Peruvian products to enter, subject to the rules of origin of each trade agreement, under preferential conditions to 53 countries, including Canada, Chile, China, the member countries of the European Union, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand and the United States, among others. The country is seeking to position itself as a regional hub for trade between Latin America and the APEC countries (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation).

Peru has a structurally positive trade balance. In 2021, exports of goods increased to USD 59.4 billion, mainly due to a boost in global demand following the pandemic. Over that same period, imports also increased, totalling USD 50.8 billion. According to the WTO, imports of services in 2021 totalled USD 10.2 billion, while exports stood at USD 2.9 billion. As a result, the country recorded a positive trade balance of USD 7.4 billion in 2021. In recent years, there was a surge in mining production, as projects implemented during the previous years matured, which increased exports and offset the deceleration in domestic demand.

 
Foreign Trade Values 20182019202020212022
Imports of Goods (million USD) 43,26242,28436,14050,89160,958
Exports of Goods (million USD) 48,01946,44439,60059,64861,309
Imports of Services (million USD) 9,76510,6807,57910,71813,604
Exports of Services (million USD) 6,3836,6962,7182,9474,962

Source: World Trade Organisation (WTO) ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Indicators 20182019202020212022
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 48.646.943.856.058.4
Trade Balance (million USD) 7,2016,8798,10214,97710,333
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) 3,8192,8953,2417,2061,691
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 3.51.7-15.426.34.2
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 3.40.3-16.419.25.9
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 23.422.921.126.529.1
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 25.224.022.729.529.3

Source: World Bank ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Forecasts 2023 (e)2024 (e)2025 (e)2026 (e)2027 (e)
Volume of exports of goods and services (Annual % change) 0.72.33.52.72.6
Volume of imports of goods and services (Annual % change) -2.82.23.23.13.1

Source: IMF, World Economic Outlook ; Latest available data

Note: (e) Estimated Data

 
International Economic Cooperation
Andean Community of Nations
The free trade treaty with the United States came into force in February 2009.
Peru signed a Free Trade Agreement with China.
Peru signed a Free Trade Agreement with the European Free Trade Association (EFTA).
Peru is part of the Pacific Alliance.
 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2021
China 32.0%
United States 12.8%
South Korea 5.0%
Japan 4.9%
Canada 4.9%
See More Countries 40.4%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2021
China 28.6%
United States 18.7%
Brazil 6.7%
Argentina 4.5%
Mexico 3.7%
See More Countries 37.8%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

Main Products

56.3 bn USD of products exported in 2021
Copper ores and concentratesCopper ores and concentrates 27.1%
Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought...Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought or not further worked than semi-manufactured or in powder form 13.7%
Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought ...Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought (excl. copper alloys of heading 7405) 4.1%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 3.3%
Flours, meals and pellets, of meat or meat offal,...Flours, meals and pellets, of meat or meat offal, of fish or of crustaceans, molluscs or other aquatic invertebrates, unfit for human consumption; greaves 3.2%
See More Products 48.6%
51.2 bn USD of products imported in 2021
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 8.1%
Telephone sets, incl. telephones for cellular...Telephone sets, incl. telephones for cellular networks or for other wireless networks; other apparatus for the transmission or reception of voice, images or other data, incl. apparatus for communication in a wired or wireless network [such as a local or wide area network]; parts thereof (excl. than transmission or reception apparatus of heading 8443, 8525, 8527 or 8528) 3.6%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude 3.6%
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 2.8%
Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl....Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl. chassis with engine and cab 2.7%
See More Products 79.2%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

To go further, check out our service Import Export Flows.

 

Main Services

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

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Actualitzacions: November 2023

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