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Xifres de comerç exterior de Ruanda

Foreign Trade in Figures

Rwanda's economic policy is open to foreign trade which accounts for 54.3% of the GDP (World Bank, 2020). In addition to benefiting from the U.S.-Rwanda Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT), which entered into force in 2012, Rwanda is a member of the East African Community (EAC) - one of the most dynamic regional communities in Africa - the Common Markets of Eastern & Southern Africa (COMESA) and the WTO. Custom duties are relatively low in the country (7.3% on average) and non-tariff barriers are virtually non-existent.

Rwanda mainly exports gold (26.1%), petroleum oils (12.9%), tea (7.4%), coffee (6.4%), and niobium, tantalum, vanadium or zirconium ores and concentrates (3.9%). The country's imports are led by petroleum oils (15.2%), gold (7.6%), electrical apparatus for line telephony (3%), medicaments (2.6%), and cane or beet sugar (2.4%). Rwanda’s leading export detonations are the neighbouring Democratic Republic of Congo (32.1%), the UAE (29.6%), Uganda (5.3%), Switzerland (4.6%), and Pakistan (3.4%); with imports come chiefly from China (19.9%), followed by India (8.8%), Kenya (8.7%), Tanzania (8.4%), and the United States (7.6%) .

Due to its strong growth and demand for manufactured goods, Rwanda has a structural trade deficit. In 2020, the country exported USD 1.4 billion worth of goods, while it imported USD 2.5 billion, resulting in a trade deficit of USD 1.1 billion. When accounting for services, the country's trade deficit reached USD 1.3 billion, as exports as services totalled USD 295 million and imports amounted to USD 543 million.

 
Foreign Trade Values 20162017201820192020
Imports of Goods (million USD) 2,2932,3232,4642,6592,542
Exports of Goods (million USD) 7441,0501,1221,2411,408
Imports of Services (million USD) 1,062904936910543
Exports of Services (million USD) 851729648747295

Source: World Trade Organisation (WTO) ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Indicators 20162017201820192020
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 49.553.755.857.954.3
Trade Balance (million USD) -1,294-974-1,155-1,473n/a
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) -1,540-1,167-1,298-1,490n/a
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 7.65.88.118.0-3.4
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 12.943.310.319.9-9.2
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 34.133.134.736.135.3
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 15.420.521.121.819.0

Source: World Bank ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Forecasts 20212022 (e)2023 (e)2024 (e)2025 (e)
Volume of exports of goods and services (Annual % change) 22.223.620.116.613.5
Volume of imports of goods and services (Annual % change) -2.310.010.711.75.0

Source: IMF, World Economic Outlook ; Latest available data

Note: (e) Estimated Data

 
International Economic Cooperation
Memberships
• The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)
• East African Community (EAC)
• The Commonwealth
• Rwanda is a a member of WTO (since 22 May 1996)
 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2019
Democratic Republic of Congo 32.1%
United Arab Emirates 29.6%
Uganda 5.3%
Switzerland 4.6%
Pakistan 3.4%
See More Countries 25.0%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2019
China 19.9%
India 8.8%
Kenya 8.7%
Tanzania 8.4%
United Arab Emirates 7.6%
See More Countries 46.5%

Source: Comtrade, 2021. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

Main Products

1.2 bn USD of products exported in 2019
Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought...Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought or not further worked than semi-manufactured or in powder form 26.1%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 12.9%
Tea, whether or not flavouredTea, whether or not flavoured 7.4%
Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated;...Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated; coffee husks and skins; coffee substitutes containing coffee in any proportion 6.4%
Niobium, tantalum, vanadium or zirconium ores and...Niobium, tantalum, vanadium or zirconium ores and concentrates 3.9%
See More Products 43.2%
3.2 bn USD of products imported in 2019
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 15.2%
Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought...Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought or not further worked than semi-manufactured or in powder form 7.6%
Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line...Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy, incl. line telephone sets with cordless handsets and telecommunication apparatus for carrier-current line systems or for digital line systems; videophones; parts thereof 3.0%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses incl. those in the form of transdermal administration or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 2.6%
Cane or beet sugar and chemically pure sucrose, in...Cane or beet sugar and chemically pure sucrose, in solid form 2.4%
See More Products 69.3%

Source: Comtrade, 2021. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

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Actualitzacions: April 2022

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