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El marc polític de Suïssa

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President of the Swiss Confederation: Viola AMHERD (since 1 January 2024)
Vice President: Karin KELLER-SUTTER (since 1 January 2024)
Next Election Dates
President: December 2024
National Council: October 2027
Council of States: each canton decides its own election dates, but these usually take place at the same time as those of the National Council.
Current Political Context
Switzerland's political and legal environment is widely based on consensus-building. For decades, the seven-seat Federal Council has been dominated by the same four main parties: the SVP, the Social Democrats, the FDP liberals and the CVP. In October 2023 voters have elected a new parliament for the 2023-2027 legislative period. Compared to the previous election, the People’s Party gained nine seats (for a total of 62) in the House of Representatives, the Social Democrats gained two (41) and the Centre Party gained one (29). The Radical-Liberals obtained 28, the Greens 23, and the Liberal Greens 10. In the 46-seat Senate, the Centre Party and the Radical-Liberals have won the most seats.
Switzerland's relationship with the European Union faces heightened political uncertainty. Negotiations for a comprehensive trade agreement collapsed in May 2021, and since then, the EU has refused updates to existing agreements, impacting trade, research grants, and integration into the European electricity market. While talks resumed in March 2023, progress has been slow. Moreover, Switzerland's neutrality became a focal point amid the conflict in Ukraine. The country adhered to EU sanctions against Russia due to its violation of international laws.
Viola Amherd (Mitte/VS) will be presiding the Federal Council in 2024, with Karin Keller-Sutter (FDP) as vice president.
Main Political Parties
The main parties represented in the parliament are:

- Swiss People's Party (SVP/UDC): populist right-wing group; strong base in German-speaking areas of Switzerland
- Social Democratic Party (SP/PS): centre-left, advocates for social justice, equality, and sustainable development
- The Liberals (FDP/PRD/PLR): centre-right, supports economic liberalism
- The Centre: centre-right (formed from the merger of the Christian Democratic Party and the Conservative Democratic Party)
- Green Party (PES): environmentalist and pacifist party
- Green Liberal Party (GL): left-wing environmentalist group
- Evangelical People's Party (EVP): centre-left
- Federal Democratic Union (EDU/UDF): right wing
- Swiss Party of Labour (PST/POP): far-left, communist
- Ticino League (Lega): right wing, regionalism
- Geneva Citizens Movement (MCG): right wing.

Executive Power
The President is both the chief of the state and head of the government. The post is purely ceremonial and by tradition rotates annually among the seven members of the Federal Council. The Federal Council is a seven-member executive council (cabinet) that heads the executive branch, with its members being elected by country’s parliament for a four-year term. Under the Constitution of Switzerland the make-up of the government is not determined by parliamentary majority but in accordance with a four-party power-sharing agreement (established in 1959) and known as the 'magic formula'.
Legislative Power
The legislature in Switzerland is bicameral. The parliament, called Federal Assembly, consists of the Council of States (upper house) and the National Council (lower house). The former is comprised of 46 seats, with two members selected from each of the 20 cantons (states/provinces) and one from each of the six half-canton. The National Council is comprised of 200 seats, with its members elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation. Members of both the Council of States and the National Council serve four year terms. The executive branch of government is directly or indirectly dependent on the support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. The federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the parliament.

Indicator of Freedom of the Press


The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:

Source: World Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders


Indicator of Political Freedom


The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Political Freedom:

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House


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Actualitzacions: July 2024

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