Tanzània flag Tanzània: Visió econòmica i política

Xifres de comerç exterior de Tanzània

Foreign Trade in Figures

Tanzania is open to foreign trade, which represents 31% of its GDP (World Bank, latest data available). The country's trade policy aims to create local industries that are more competitive and to diversify its export sector in order to stimulate economic growth. Tanzania is a member of several regional and international trade agreements, including the East African Community (EAC), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), and the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA). The country has also implemented several measures to facilitate international trade, including the implementation of a single window system for trade documentation and the establishment of trade facilitation committees. In 2021, pearls, precious stones, and metals accounted for around 44.5% of Tanzania's exports, mainly due to gold exports, the main item in the Tanzanian trade balance (42.9% of total exports). Other major exports are rice (4.7%), vegetables (4.2%) and coffee (2.7%). Imports were led by petroleum oils (19.4%), medicaments (3.3%), iron (3.1%), and motorcars (2.2% - data Comtrade).

Tanzania's main suppliers are China (24.8% of total imports), the United Arab Emirates (12.5%), India (11.1%), Saudi Arabia (6.2%), and Japan (4.3%). Its main customers are the United Arab Emirates (16.5%), India (15.8%), South Africa (14.3% of total exports), Switzerland (8.2%), and Kenya (6.2% - data Comtrade 2021). Low customs duties (the trade-weighted tariff rate is 9.7%) and few trade restrictions make the country easily accessible for international trade. Trade barriers are mainly of a logistic and non-tariff nature. For example, increased traffic in and out of the Dar es Salaam port - the main port of entry and exit of merchandise for both Tanzania and its landlocked neighbouring countries (Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Zambia) - has not been followed up with the necessary infrastructural investments. This constitutes one of the main barriers to trade with these countries. Poorly maintained roads and railroads also make trade difficult. However, the government has launched a large number of projects to improve infrastructure. Obtaining construction permits, registering land, and tax payments remain difficult nonetheless.

Tanzania suffers from a chronic trade deficit due to a capital-intensive growth model highly demanding oil and capital goods imports. In 2021, merchandise exports reached USD 6.3 billion, while imports amounted to USD 10 billion (+5.4% and +27% y-o-y – data WTO); meanwhile, exports of services reached USD 3.2 billion, while imports amounted to USD 1.7 billion (WTO). In the same year, the World Bank estimated the country’s trade deficit at 2.7% of GDP (from 1% one year earlier). Data from the Bank of Tanzania show that in the first eleven months of 2022 exports of goods and services increased to USD 11.94 from USD 9.73 billion in the same period one year earlier. The increase was largely driven by non-traditional goods exports and services receipts (mostly tourism). On the other hand, imports of goods and services reached USD 16.45 billion, compared with USD 11.21 billion in 2021.

 
Foreign Trade Values 20182019202020212022
Imports of Goods (million USD) 9,1209,4528,43910,02414,219
Exports of Goods (million USD) 4,0415,0056,0616,3916,825
Imports of Services (million USD) 1,9161,7821,2921,5752,457
Exports of Services (million USD) 4,0154,2812,1843,1184,762

Source: World Trade Organisation (WTO) ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Indicators 20182019202020212022
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 32.633.028.029.935.0
Trade Balance (million USD) -4,190-3,415-1,517n/an/a
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) -2,092-917-626n/an/a
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 23.3-1.4-7.69.623.7
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) -5.819.0-8.65.210.2
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 17.917.014.515.819.6
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 14.716.013.514.115.4

Source: World Bank ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Forecasts 20232024 (e)2025 (e)2026 (e)2027 (e)
Volume of exports of goods and services (Annual % change) 5.56.48.59.49.7
Volume of imports of goods and services (Annual % change) 9.70.63.58.18.6

Source: IMF, World Economic Outlook ; Latest available data

Note: (e) Estimated Data

 
International Economic Cooperation
Member of the WTO - World Trade Organization

Member of EAC - East African Community

Member of SADC - Southern African Development Community

African Growth and Opportunity Act beneficiary country

 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2022
India 17.3%
South Africa 13.6%
United Arab Emirates 11.2%
Kenya 5.6%
Switzerland 5.3%
See More Countries 47.1%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2022
China 25.2%
United Arab Emirates 15.9%
India 12.5%
Saudi Arabia 3.9%
South Africa 3.5%
See More Countries 39.0%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

Main Products

6.8 bn USD of products exported in 2022
Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought...Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought or not further worked than semi-manufactured or in powder form 41.5%
Coconuts, Brazil nuts and cashew nuts, fresh or...Coconuts, Brazil nuts and cashew nuts, fresh or dried, whether or not shelled or peeled 3.4%
Copper ores and concentratesCopper ores and concentrates 2.8%
Dried leguminous vegetables, shelled, whether or...Dried leguminous vegetables, shelled, whether or not skinned or split 2.7%
RiceRice 2.7%
See More Products 46.8%
15.7 bn USD of products imported in 2022
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 23.3%
Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709)Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709) 2.5%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses "incl. those in the form of transdermal administration" or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 2.3%
Human blood; animal blood prepared for therapeutic...Human blood; animal blood prepared for therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic uses; antisera and other blood fractions and immunological products, whether or not modified or obtained by means of biotechnological processes; vaccines, toxins, cultures of micro-organisms (excl. yeasts) and similar products 2.3%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled, not clad, plated or coated 2.1%
See More Products 67.4%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

To go further, check out our service Import Export Flows.

 

Main Services

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

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Actualitzacions: December 2023

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