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El marc polític de Turquia

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President : Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (since August 2014) - AKP
Head of Government:  President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since August 2014); a 2017 constitutional referendum eliminated the post of prime minister after the 2018 general election
Next Election Dates
Presidential : June 2023
Legislative: June 2023
Current Political Context
In November 2020, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan appointed Naci Agbal as the new chairman of the country's central bank while removing Berat Albayrak - his son-in-law - from the office as Minister of Treasury and Finance. This came after the government's economic policies came under criticism during Albayrak's tenure and as the independence of the central bank was put into question by Erdogan's repeated interventions. As inflation nonetheless soared to record highs in 2021, the popularity of Erdogan eroded and protests erupted. Internationally, Turkey is embroiled in several regional conflicts (including in Syria, Libya, Iraq and the Nagorno-Karabakh) and its relations with the West are tumultuous. Relations with the EU, which deteriorated in 2020 following Turkey’s gas exploration in Greek and Cypriot waters, were re-established in 2021. The Turkey-EU migration deal agreed in 2016, which ensures that asylum seekers who arrive on EU shores are resettled in Turkey in exchange for EU funding, was renewed in March. In 2020, after a number of Turkish troops had been killed in airstrikes in Syria’s northern Idlib province, the government declared that Turkey would no longer stop refugees from entering Europe. Turkey hosts the largest refugee population in the world, close to 4 million, an estimated 3.6 million of whom are Syrian refugees (European Parliament). In September, Erdogan declared that Turkey intended to buy a second batch of S-400 missile defence systems from Russia, risking additional sanctions from the US that had already questioned its membership from NATO. In the context of increased tensions between Russia and Ukraine, it is nonetheless in Turkey’s interests to maintain ties with Ukraine, as the country is a critical supplier of defence equipment.
Main Political Parties
- Justice and Development Party (AKP): centre-right, primary leading party, socially conservative
- Republican People’s Party (CHP): centre-left, primary opposition party based on social-republican values
Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP): pro-minority, left-wing, socialist and democratic
- Nationalist Movement Party (MHP): nationalist party
- The Good Party (IYI Parti): Nationalist, Conservatist
Executive Power
The President of the Republic is the head of state and the head of the government. He or she is elected by direct universal suffrage for a five-year term of office. The President has the function of an arbitrator (promulgation of laws, signature of decrees) and appoints the Council of Ministers. The President also appoints the judicial organs and other governmental organs. The position of Prime Minister was abolished following the constitutional referendum of April 2017.
Legislative Power
Legislative power in Turkey is unicameral. The Parliament, called the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, has 600 seats and its members are elected by universal suffrage for five years, according to a system of proportional representation.

Indicator of Freedom of the Press


The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:

Indicator of Political Freedom


The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Partly Free
Political Freedom:

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House


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Actualitzacions: January 2023

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