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El marc polític de Turquia

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President: Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (since August 2014)
Next Election Dates
Presidential: 2028
Legislative: 2028
Current Political Context
Turkey held presidential and parliamentary elections on May 14, 2023. The ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) and its allies won a majority in the parliamentary elections, but President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan fell short of an outright majority in the presidential elections. A second round was held on May 28, which Erdoğan won by a narrow margin.
Although being part of NATO (with the second largest army of the Alliance after the U.S.), Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan tried to maintain a neutral stance towards Russia and there have been tensions inside the Alliance as Turkey opposed Finland and Sweden's talks to join NATO. The objections centred on accusations that the two countries harboured Kurdish militants who are considered terrorists by Turkey. Finally, the parliament voted to approve the applications of the two Nordic countries.
Turkey has restored its relations with the United Arab Emirates and the two countries have signed 13 cooperation agreements in various sectors. Furthermore, Erdogan put an effort into normalizing diplomatic relations with Saudi Arabia. On the other hand, despite the fact that Turkey's relations with Israel improved in recent years, with the two countries agreeing on the resumption of diplomatic ties, tensions with the Jewish country escalated after Hamas’ terrorist attack on Israel and the retaliation of the latter, with Erdogan severely condemning the invasion of Gaza.
Main Political Parties
The main political parties represented in the Turkish parliament are:
- Justice and Development Party (AKP): centre-right, primary leading party, socially conservative
- Republican People’s Party (CHP): centre-left, primary opposition party based on social-republican values
- Peoples' Equality and Democracy Party (DEM): pro-Kurdish, left-libertarian, formerly known as Party of the Greens and the Left Future
- Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP): pro-minority, left-wing, socialist and democratic
- Nationalist Movement Party (MHP): nationalist party, allied of the AKP
- The Good Party (IYI): nationalist, conservatist
- New Welfare Party (YRP): far-right, Islamist
- Workers' Party of Turkey (TIP): socialist, left to far-left.
Executive Power
The President of the Republic is the head of state and the head of the government. He or she is elected by direct universal suffrage for a five-year term of office. The President has the function of an arbitrator (promulgation of laws, signature of decrees) and appoints the Council of Ministers. The President also appoints the judicial organs and other governmental organs. The position of Prime Minister was abolished following the constitutional referendum of April 2017.
Legislative Power
Legislative power in Turkey is unicameral. The Parliament, called the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, has 600 seats and its members are elected by universal suffrage for five years, according to a system of proportional representation.

Indicator of Freedom of the Press


The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:

Indicator of Political Freedom


The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Partly Free
Political Freedom:

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House


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Actualitzacions: July 2024

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