Uganda flag Uganda: Visió econòmica i política

Xifres de comerç exterior d'Uganda

Foreign Trade in Figures

Uganda is open to foreign trade, which accounts for 35% of its GDP (World Bank). The country is a member of numerous international organizations, such as the WTO, COMESA, EAC (East African Community), ESAAMLG (anti-money laundering group in Eastern and Southern Africa), and IGAD (Intergovernmental Authority for the Development of the Horn of Africa States). Uganda mainly exports coffee (24.0%), fish and fish products (4.1%), beans and other legumes (3.8%), sugar and sugar confectionery (3.8%), iron and steel (3.4%), animal/vegetable fats & oils (3.3%); whereas imports are led by petroleum (17.9%), medicaments (7.3%), road vehicles (7.2%), iron and steel (6.6%), cereals (5.2%), and plastics (5.2% - data Uganda Bureau of Statistics).

According to the latest figures available by the Uganda Bureau of Statistics, in 2022, China (19.4%), India (13.2%), the United Arab Emirates (11.8%), Kenya (8.7%), Saudi Arabia (4.9%), Japan (4.6%), and Tanzania (4.2%) were the main import partners; whereas exports were mostly directed towards Kenya (16.9%), South Sudan (16.6%), D.R. Congo (15.7%), Italy (6.6%), Tanzania (4.3%), and Germany (4.3%). The country's trade policy aims to encourage cooperation and integration in East Africa to stimulate production and increase export earnings. Tariffs are not very high and the country has few non-tariff barriers to trade. However, corruption and underdeveloped infrastructure remain major obstacles to trade. The political situation in South Sudan, one of the country's main trading partners with Kenya, continues to affect trade flows.

Uganda's trade balance is structurally in deficit. In 2022, exports of goods decreased to USD 3.9 billion (from 4.1 one year earlier), while imports reached USD 9.3 billion (+6.5% y-o-y). As for services, exports totaled USD 1.7 billion, while imports amounted to USD 3.2 billion. The overall trade balance was estimated to be in deficit by 10.5% of GDP by the World Bank (compared to 10.2% one year earlier). According to preliminary data by UBS, in the first nine months of 2023, Uganda’s exports totaled USD 5 billion, whereas imports stood at USD 8.8 billion.

 
Foreign Trade Values 20192020202120222023
Imports of Goods (million USD) 7,6968,2519,0869,73212,159
Exports of Goods (million USD) 3,5644,1493,9653,7726,162
Imports of Services (million USD) 2,9453,1113,1463,1983,591
Exports of Services (million USD) 2,0761,1601,7371,8402,049

Source: World Trade Organisation (WTO) ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Indicators 20182019202020212022
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 36.639.437.041.734.5
Trade Balance (million USD) -2,453-2,755-2,637-3,046n/a
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) -2,795-3,623-4,635-4,527n/a
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 8.47.10.418.9-8.0
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 9.44.3-1.20.2-19.8
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 21.622.321.625.922.5
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 15.117.115.415.812.0

Source: World Bank ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Forecasts 20232024 (e)2025 (e)2026 (e)2027 (e)
Volume of exports of goods and services (Annual % change) 46.14.74.345.2-2.4
Volume of imports of goods and services (Annual % change) 21.68.97.311.7-12.9

Source: IMF, World Economic Outlook ; Latest available data

Note: (e) Estimated Data

 
International Economic Cooperation
Member of COMESA - Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa

Member of EAC - East African Community

Member of Cotonou Agreement

Member of African Growth and Opportunity Act beneficiary country

 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2021
United Arab Emirates 26.8%
Kenya 13.3%
South Sudan 12.2%
Democratic Republic of Congo 8.6%
Germany 3.3%
See More Countries 35.8%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2021
China 18.2%
India 11.6%
Tanzania 9.0%
United Arab Emirates 8.9%
Kenya 8.5%
See More Countries 43.8%

Source: Comtrade, 2024. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

Main Products

4.0 bn USD of products exported in 2021
Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought...Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought or not further worked than semi-manufactured or in powder form 26.0%
Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated;...Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated; coffee husks and skins; coffee substitutes containing coffee in any proportion 18.1%
Cocoa beans, whole or broken, raw or roastedCocoa beans, whole or broken, raw or roasted 2.7%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 2.5%
Dried leguminous vegetables, shelled, whether or...Dried leguminous vegetables, shelled, whether or not skinned or split 2.5%
See More Products 48.2%
9.1 bn USD of products imported in 2021
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 13.6%
Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought...Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought or not further worked than semi-manufactured or in powder form 12.0%
Palm oil and its fractions, whether or not refined...Palm oil and its fractions, whether or not refined (excl. chemically modified) 4.0%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses "incl. those in the form of transdermal administration" or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 3.2%
RiceRice 2.5%
See More Products 64.7%

Source: Comtrade, 2024. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

To go further, check out our service Import-Export Flows.

 

Main Services

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2024. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

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Actualitzacions: May 2024

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