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El marc polític de Zimbàbue

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President: Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA (since 4 September 2023)
Vice President:
Constantino CHIWENGA (since 4 September 2023)
Second Vice-President: Kembo MOHADI (8 September 2023)
Next Election Dates
General elections: 2028
Main Political Parties
Zimbabwe has a multi-party system, though a handful of larger parties typically dominate politics. The main political parties in the country include:

- The African National Union of Zimbabwe - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF): left, ruling party, nationalist and populist, heir to the liberation movements that fought the apartheid regime of Ian Smith, led by Emmerson Dambudzo Mnangagwa
- Citizens Coalition for Change (CCC): centre-left, social democracy
- Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai (MDC–T): centre-left, nationalist, social democracy
- National People's Congress (NPC): centrist.

Executive Power
Executive power is held by the President, the head of state and the head of government, who is elected for a five-year term. The President appoints the members of his Cabinet. The President is elected by direct universal suffrage and is assisted by a Vice-President. Under the new constitution, adopted after the presidential elections of 2013, the post of Prime Minister has been abolished.
Legislative Power
The legislative power is vested in a bicameral parliament consisting of a Senate (80 seats - 60 members elected by popular vote for a five-year term, 18 traditional chiefs elected by the Council of Chiefs, and 2 seats for people with disabilities) and an Assembly (280 seats - 210 members elected by popular vote for a five-year term to represent single-member constituencies, 60 seats reserved for women, who are elected by proportional representation in 10 six-seat constituencies, and 10 additional seats reserved for candidates aged between 21 and 35 directly elected by proportional representation).

Indicator of Freedom of the Press


The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:

Indicator of Political Freedom


The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Partly Free
Political Freedom:

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House


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Actualitzacions: May 2024

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